58 items found for ""
- Global Earthquake Maps | Global Earthquake Model Foundation | Italy
global earthquake maps The development of the Global Earthquake Hazard and Risk Model was a key priority for GEM under its 2014-2018 Work Program. The objective is to collaboratively develop a complete set of earthquake data and models, and to deliver a comprehensive global assessment of earthquake risk. Anchor 1
- Hazard Technical Description | Global Earthquake Model | Italy
Global Earthquake Maps GEM GLOBAL MOSAIC OF HAZARD MODELS Technical description READ MORE The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Global Seismic Hazard Map (version 2018.1) depicts the geographic distribution of the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% probability of being exceeded in 50 years, computed for reference rock conditions (shear wave velocity, V , of 760-800 m/s). The map was created by collating maps computed using national and regional probabilistic seismic hazard models developed by various institutions and projects, and by GEM Foundation scientists. The OpenQuake engine, an open-source seismic hazard and risk calculation software developed principally by the GEM Foundation, was used to calculate the hazard values. A smoothing methodology was applied to homogenise hazard values along the model borders. The map is based on a database of hazard models described using the OpenQuake engine data format (NRML); those models originally implemented in other software formats were converted into NRML. While translating these models, various checks were performed to test the compatibility between the original results and the new results computed using the OpenQuake engine. Overall the differences between the original and translated model results are small, notwithstanding some diversity in modelling methodologies implemented in different hazard modelling software. The hashed areas in the map (e.g. Greenland) are currently not covered by a hazard model. The map and the underlying database of models are a dynamic framework, capable to incorporate newly released open models. Due to possible model limitations, regions portrayed with low hazard may still experience potentially damaging earthquakes. The GEM Foundation plans to release future updates of this map on a regular basis as new information becomes available. Technical details on the compilation of the hazard and risk maps and the underlying models are available at http://www.globalquakemodel.org/gem. How to use and cite this work Please cite this work as: M. Pagani, J. Garcia-Pelaez, R. Gee, K. Johnson, V. Poggi, R. Styron, G. Weatherill, M. Simionato, D. Viganò, L. Danciu, D. Monelli (2018). Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Seismic Hazard Map (version 2018.1 - December 2018), DOI: 10.13117/GEM-GLOBAL-SEISMIC-HAZARD-MAP-2018.1 This work is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-SA): https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/. Acknowledgements This map is the result of a collaborative effort and extensively relies on the enthusiasm and commitment of various organisations and projects to openly share and collaborate. The creation of this map would not have been possible without the support provided by many public and private organisations during GEM’s second implementation phase (2014-2018). These key contributions are profoundly acknowledged. None of this would have been possible without the extensive support of all GEM Secretariat staff. The map was plotted using the Generic Mapping Tools software (Wessel et al., 2013). Legal statements This map was created for dissemination purposes. The information included in this map must not be used for the design of earthquake-resistant structures or to support any important decision involving human life, capital and movable and immovable properties. The values of seismic hazard in this map do not constitute an alternative nor do they replace building actions defined in national building codes. Readers seeking this information should consult national databases. This hazard map is the combination of results computed using 30 hazard input models covering the vast majority of landmass. These models represent the best information publicly accessible, and the GEM Foundation recognises their credibility and authoritativeness. This hazard map results from an integration process that is solely the responsibility of the GEM Foundation. Anchor 1
- 10th Anniversary of OpenQuake | GEM Foundation
October 22, 2020 1600-1730 CEST the openquake 10 year anniversary webinar Read article Background The OpenQuake Engine is at the foundation of GEM’s hazard and risk assessment capability and is a hallmark of GEM’s open framework and global collaboration network. Since its first release 10 years ago, the OQ Engine has become the primary analysis tool used by a wide range of scientists and engineers worldwide for the analysis of earthquake hazard and risk at scales from site-specific and urban through to national, regional and global. Purpose To celebrate GEM’s and the OQ communities’ achievements in developing OQ and applying it to analyze seismic hazard and risk worldwide. To explore current capabilities and future directions in the development of the software and its applications. speakers John Schneider GEM Secretary General Marco Pagani GEM Hazard Laurentiu Danciu ETH Zurich Yufang Rong FM Global, USA Vitor Silva GEM Risk Murray Journeay NRCan, Canada Ana Beatriz Acevedo EAFIT Univ, Colombia agenda October 22, 2020 1600-1730 CEST topic speaker Introduction and brief history OQ Engine Hazard: past, present and future Working with the OQ Engine for site-specific, national and regional hazard assessment Seismic hazard analysis for engineering-based insurance applications OQ Engine Risk: past, present and future Building a national risk model for Canada Urban Risk Assessment in Colombia Questions and Answers, wrap-up John Schneider Marco Pagani Laurentiu Danciu Yufang Rong Vitor Silva Murray Journeay Ana Beatriz Acevedo John Schneider brochures presentations video a decade of serving oq engine to analize seismic hazard & risk to reduce losS of lives and properties for a safer and resilient future.
- VMTK webinar | GEM Foundation
Vulnerability Modellers' Toolkit (VMTK) A joint EFEHR - GEM Webinar 20 April 2023 via Zoom Register SPEAKERS PROGRAM RESOURCES LOCATION about vmtk VMTK is a suite of open-source tools intended to provide earthquake engineers with a comprehensive platform to develop fragility and vulnerability models while allowing wide flexibility in terms of seismic demand, structural capacity, damage criteria and damage-to-loss conversion. speakers Helen Crowley EUCENTRE Martina Caruso GEM Luis Martins GEM Vitor Silva GEM Speakers agenda Time Topic Speaker Organisation BASIC USERS SESSION 10:00 - 10:30 Introduction to GEM's VMTK Helen Crowley EUCENTRE - Scope of the VMTK - Main features of the VMTK (GUI version) - Installation on Mac and Windows 10:30 - 11:00 Example application of VMTK Martina Caruso GEM Foundation 11:00 - 11:45 Q & A and short break ADVANCED USERS SESSION 11:45 - 12:30 Tour of the VMTK GitHub Repository+ Q&A Luis Martins GEM Foundation WRAP-UP 12:30 - 13:00 GEM's plans for vulnerability modelling Vitor Silva GEM Foundation download Program presentations downloads VMTK source code and installation VMTK paper video
- FAQ | Global Earthquake Model Foundation
Frequently asked questions How to sponsor and participate 1. What kind of institution is GEM? The GEM Foundation (Italian registered name “Fondazione GEM”) is a non-profit foundation regulated by Italian law and based in Pavia (hosted by EUCENTRE). 2. How can my company or institution collaborate with GEM? The first and most complete option is to become a GEM sponsor (for more details, please see the following FAQ). If this is not possible for any reason, you can consider starting a specific project and then signing an institutional collaboration agreement. “Institutional” means that the object of the collaboration must fall within the institutional aims of the GEM Foundation, which are described in detail in art. 2 of the statute. Our legal team can provide you with an agreement template for institutional collaborations. 3. How can my company or institution become a sponsor of GEM? As provided in art. 3 of GEM Statute, to become a GEM sponsor you should submit your application to the GEM Governing Board, specifying the sponsorship category, the Sponsorship duration, and the name of the designated member of the Governing Board. Should the Governing Board accept the new sponsorship application, the candidate will have to sign a sponsorship agreement through which they commit to: respect the Statute and the GEM Foundation rules and regulations; disburse the annual contribution in support of the Foundation’s activities set by the Governing Board for the specific participant category to which they belong. Our legal team can provide you with a sponsorship agreement for your specific category. 4. Can GEM support my company or institution just as a consultant or a service provider? Yes, it is possible but is not our preferred approach. Italian law does not prohibit non-profit organizations from doing business as a commercial entity. However, this approach is less in line with our core values and mission. Commercial activities are also more expensive for GEM to carry out due to increased administrative overheads and taxes. For these reasons, GEM undertakes commercial activities only where doing so benefits the community as a whole. GEM reinvests any surplus revenue from commercial projects for use in institutional activities. 5. Which categories of sponsors are available? The GEM Statute includes three macro-categories of sponsors: a. Governor: they are voting sponsors and need to pay a financial contribution … b. Advisor: they are non-voting sponsors and need to pay a financial contribution … c. Associates: they are non-voting sponsors and do not need to pay any financial contribution; they may nominate a delegate to attend Governing Board meetings (without voting right). How to use intellectual property rights and licensing 6. What are the main GEM Foundation intellectual products? As part of its institutional activities, the GEM Foundation produces software, datasets, hazard models, scientific and informative articles, research reports, slides presentation, infographics, maps and pictures. As is well known, these types of materials are protected by intellectual property rights and, except where otherwise specified, the GEM Foundation is the sole rights holder. 7. What is GEM's approach to product rights and licensing? The GEM Foundation adopts an open approach to the management of rights on its products and supports the spread of phenomena such as free software/open source software, open access, open data. With a few limited exceptions, all intellectual products by the GEM Foundation are released with open licenses, such as the Free Software Foundation licenses for software and the Creative Commons licenses for creative contents, datasets and models. Every file that is released on our websites is accompanied by the corresponding license. From time to time, please check the license applied. If in doubt, you can contact firstname.lastname@example.org . 8. How to use GEM intellectual products? What types of licenses can be applied? In order to perform analyses using the OpenQuake engine, one needs both the engine software and a model. In order to use a model one must respect both software and data licenses. a. Software, AGPL The software license used by GEM, the GNU AGPL, allows users to use the software for any purpose, including commercial purposes, without having to request a specific permission and without needing to become active supporters of our projects. The AGPL does restrict (re)distribution and integration of the software - in particular it is not permitted to link AGPL software with closed-source software systems, even if this linkage is performed via a network. Users are permitted to modify AGPL software, however, users must remember to release any derived/modified versions openly under the terms of the AGPL. In essence this means that GEM software must remain open and cannot be made into closed products without permission. b. Data and Models The Creative Commons licenses applied to our creative contents, datasets and models, allow users to freely use and modify (by making derivative works) our products and require that the authorship of GEM Foundation is always correctly attributed and in some cases impose some additional restrictions on use. GEM models and datasets are distributed with either the CC BY-SA license which allows commercial use or the CC BY-NC-SA license which prohibits commercial use. Both are Share-Alike licenses; this means that the product and any modified or derived products may only be (re)distributed under the terms of the same license. In essence this means that GEM models must remain open and cannot be made into closed products without permission. c. Other content (slides, images, articles) Some content is distributed under the terms of the CC BY-NC-ND license which prohibits both commercial use and the creation of derived products; this means that you are free to redistribute the content but you may not modify or make commercial use of the content. Content published in peer-reviewed journals, conference proceedings or other publications may have a different license, please check before using. GEM Foundation registered trademarks The GEM Foundation has two registered trademarks: GEM Global Earthquake Model (see graphics) and OQ OpenQuake (see graphics). They have been registered in the following countries: European Union, United States, Switzerland, Australia, Turkey, Japan. More details about the usage of our trademarks are available below. 9. What are the rules and policies applicable to Marks owned by GEM Foundation? In addition to the generally applicable rules, there are a few specific rules that we ask everyone to follow when using trademarks owned by GEM Foundation. Use the full form of any trademarks (e.g., “GEM Global Earthquake Model”) in the first reference in all documents of mass communication, including marketing collateral and web pages. You may then use any abbreviated or short form references (e.g. “GEM”) within the same the document where the full form has already been used. Do not use GEM Foundation trademarks in a manner that would disparage GEM Foundation or its projects (e.g., untruthful advertising, false/misleading promotional materials, etc.). Do not use a GEM Foundation logo on the cover of a book or magazine without written permission from GEM Foundation. Do not use GEM Foundation trademarks more prominently than your own company, product or service name. Do not use a logo of GEM Foundation on posters, brochures, signs, websites, or other marketing materials to promote your events, products or services without written permission from GEM Foundation. Do not attempt to claim or assert any ownership rights in any mark of GEM Foundation and do not attempt to register any GEM Foundation trademark as a trademark, trade name, domain name, or “doing business as” name, alone or (unless specifically licensed) in combination with your own trademarks. DOs and DON'Ts on the use of GEM logos and links GEM Foundation marks have been created and their use is expressly permitted for a specific purpose. DON'T : Do not use logos or names of GEM Foundation in any commercial or marketing context other than as expressly permitted in this policy unless you have obtained explicit written permission from GEM Foundation to do so. DO : Do use our trademarks for private and personal use to make t-shirts, stickers, and caps for yourself and your friends (meaning people from whom you don’t receive anything of value in return) in a manner that is consistent with the preservation of the goodwill and value of the mark. DO : You are also allowed to use a trademark or logo of GEM Foundation as a link to the home page of the applicable project or to a web page on GEM Foundation web site that is relevant to the reference so long as the link is in a manner that is consistent with the preservation of the goodwill and value of the mark. DO : The link and all other usage of a logo of GEM Foundation shall be done using the official versions of GEM Foundation logos obtained from GEM Foundation or its projects. Accessing the source data used for the global maps Currently the data layer is available only to GEM partners/collaborators and for non-commercial purposes. We will soon also make it available under a for-a-fee license. We are also in the process of making improvements to the global data set, including adding soil amplification, as well as acceleration data for other return periods and spectral periods/frequencies. If you are interested in exploring any of these options with us, please fill in our contact form to describe the nature of the intended application so we can determine the best way to make the information available to you.
- GEM | Press Release Embargoed
PRESS RELEASE ----- GEM Conference 2023: A Milestone Event Showcasing Advances in Global Earthquake Hazard and Risk Maps, Models and Databases ----- Bergamo, Italy - June 13, 2023 The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Foundation, a leading organisation in earthquake hazard and risk modelling and assessment, is set to release its new version of the global earthquake hazard and risk models, maps, and databases. This ground-breaking event will take place as the centrepiece of GEM’s international conference in Bergamo, Italy, on June 13th. Gathering leading researchers and risk management experts, the conference aims to propel the world towards greater earthquake resilience and discuss recent developments in the field. Since GEM released the Global Earthquake Hazard and Risk maps to the public in December 2018 , the data and maps have been recognised as a major milestone in establishing a unified and global understanding of seismic risk. Downloaded thousands of times and embraced by industry experts, these maps have provided valuable insights into earthquake-prone regions worldwide. Building upon this success, GEM continued to develop new products such as Atlas 1.0 , an interactive global seismic hazard map, and comprehensive hazard maps available through GEM and distributor platforms. "We are excited to host this important conference and bring world-leading experts in earthquake hazard and risk research, together with partners across the public and private disaster risk management and risk reduction sectors," said John Schneider, GEM Secretary General. "By sharing our knowledge and expertise, we can work together to reduce the impact of earthquakes and build more resilient communities around the world." What’s new In the forthcoming 2023 version of the global seismic hazard model, GEM has made substantial enhancements. Marco Pagani, the Hazard Team Coordinator, shared, "We have incorporated several new models contributed from our partners including the US, Canada, New Zealand and Japan, and achieved greater homogeneity among independent models. We have also improved the spatial resolution of computed results and added more intensity measure types to the hazard outputs, offering a more comprehensive and detailed assessment." Vitor Silva, the Risk Team Coordinator, highlighted the major updates in the seismic risk model, stating, "Enhancements include major improvements to the global exposure by incorporating new building data due to inflation and population growth, and disaggregating exposure information to a much higher spatial resolution to improve risk estimates, particularly for major urban areas. Building vulnerability estimates have also been updated to reflect local construction practices as well as to incorporate the vulnerability of building contents. Most importantly for humanitarian applications, risk results now include estimates of human mortality, injuries, and displacement." Alongside the global maps update, GEM’s Catalina Yepes, Seismic Risk Engineer will introduce the Earthquake Scenarios Database saying “We have developed a collection of information on the impacts of some of the most important historical earthquakes, including information on the physical and economic impact, as well as records of ground shaking and ground failure. This approach fills an important gap in disaster consequences databases by providing information on hazard and impact that is much needed for verifying models and estimating future event consequences. We are hosted in GitLab, as a free and open resource for global earthquake risk assessment efforts.” What to expect The theme of GEM’s conference “Are we making a difference” provides the platform to showcase these new developments as well as to sample some important applications of GEM’s analysis tools, models and data for risk assessment to inform risk reduction and management decisions. The conference sets off on an impactful note with an introductory session that highlights the invaluable insights gained from the 2023 M7.7 Kahramanmaras-Gaziantep, Turkey Earthquake. This serves as a powerful reminder of the pivotal role of integrating advanced earthquake risk analysis and modeling into comprehensive risk mitigation strategies. The final session will explore the future of earthquake risk assessment science and practice, emphasising innovation and collaboration. Distinguished keynote speakers will share their expertise, including Sinan Akkar, Principal Catastrophe Modeler at Turk Reinsurance Inc., who will discuss lessons from the recent M7.7 Kahramanmaras-Gaziantep earthquake in Turkey. Alanna Simpson, Lead Disaster Risk Management Specialist at the World Bank Group, will present on the landscape of disaster risk reduction initiatives, both past and future. Finally, David Wald, Research Geophysicist at the United States Geological Survey (USGS), will present the case for developing an International Macroseismic Scale. The conference welcomes select attendees in-person by invitation only, while also offering online registration for virtual participation. To join or watch the event online and to learn more about the conference, please visit the official conference web page at: https://www.globalquakemodel.org/gem-conference-2023 For more information or to request an interview with the GEM Secretary General, scientists and earthquake engineers, please contact: Jephraim Oro GEM Communications Email: email@example.com ###
- sera project | Global Earthquake Model Foundation
Projects The Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Research Infrastructure Alliance for Europe (SERA) aims to reduce the risk posed by natural and anthropogenic earthquakes based on innovative research and development projects. SERA will significantly improve the access to data, services and research infrastructures for scientists and other professionals. GEM's contributions focus on taxonomy and exposure of residential, commercial and industrial buildings in Europe; physical vulnerability assessment for buildings; integrated earthquake risk analysis using the risk assessment framework and OpenQuake software established by the Global Earthquake Model. SERA is a Horizon 2020-supported programme responding to the priorities identified in the topic INFRAIA-01-2016-2017 ‘Integrating Activities for Advanced Communities’. SERA involves 31 partners and 8 linked third parties in Europe. It started in May 2017 and will last for three years. The EUCENTRE-SERA project is collaborating closely with the GEM Foundation (Global Earthquake Model) to: develop a European Risk Modelling framework that brings together the strengths of previous projects such as SHARE, NERA and fills in the research gaps; integrate knowledge and data from other SERA working packages; and build on the risk assessment framework and software developed by GEM. SERA is engaging 31 partners from 16 European countries. They all have leading expertise in the operation of experimental facilities, monitoring infrastructures, and data repositories in the fields of seismology, anthropogenic hazards or earthquake engineering. (complete list ) Europe SERA Project Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Research Infrastructure Alliance for Europe (SERA) English version Versión en español EM-SERA OpenQuake Training in Istanbul, Turkey SERA European Building Exposure Workshop: From European Hazard to Risk
- treq-es project | Global Earthquake Model Foundation
Projects Resumen El Proyecto de Capacitación y Comunicación para la Evaluación de Riesgos de Terremotos (TREQ) fue diseñado para demostrar cómo la evaluación de la amenaza y el riesgo sísmico puede informar a los tomadores de decisiones en el desarrollo de políticas de reducción de riesgos, así como también cómo se puede comunicar adecuadamente el riesgo de terremotos a las partes interesadas y al público en general. [PDF Executive Summary English ] Objetivos El proyecto se organizó en dos partes principales. El primero tuvo como objetivo desarrollar la capacidad para la evaluación de la amenaza y el riesgo sísmico a nivel urbano en América Latina, Quito (Ecuador), Cali (Colombia) y Santiago de los Caballeros (República Dominicana); mientras que la segunda parte fue desarrollar material de capacitación, educación y comunicación para mejorar la comprensión del riesgo de terremotos en todo el mundo. El programa se diseñó para un amplio espectro de partes interesadas, categorizadas en cuatro grupos principales: gobierno(tomadores de decisiones/autoridades públicas), industria (practicantes y profesionales), academia (investigadores y profesores) y la comunidad. Ecuador Municipalidad de Quito Escuela Politécnica Nacional (EPN) Instituto Geofísico (IG) Colegio de Ingenieros Civiles de Pichincha (CICP) Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador Dominican Republic Servicio Geológico Nacional (SGN) Oficina Nacional de Evaluación Sísmica y Vulnerabilidad de Infraestructuras y Edificaciones (ONESVIE) Comité Técnico Nacional (CTN) Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra (PUCMM) Colombia Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) Departamento Administrativo de Planeación Municipal (DAPM), Cali Unidad Nacional de Gestión del Riesgo de Desastres (UNGRD) Universidad EAFIT, Medellin Costa Rica Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) Mexico Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC) Ubicación El proyecto se implementó en las ciudades piloto de Quito (Ecuador), Cali (Colombia) y Santiago de los Caballeros (República Dominicana). Alcanzó a más de 600 participantes de 64 países para sus sesiones de capacitación en línea OpenQuake. Proyecto TREQ Comunicación y Formación en la Evaluación de Riesgos por Terremotos (TREQ) English version Versión en español Visión general Resultados Capacitación Comunicación Fotos Publicaciones Evaluación del riesgo urbano en América Latina y el Caribe En este componente se generaron los siguientes entregables: evaluación de amenaza y riesgo sísmico a escala urbana para las tres ciudades TREQ: Quito (Ecuador), Cali (Colombia) y Santiago de los Caballeros (República Dominicana). Se desarrollaron modelos de vanguardia para cada ciudad en estrecha colaboración con socios locales. Los modelos de entrada y los resultados están disponibles en la siguiente dirección URL: [github.com/gem/treq-riesgo-urbano/ ] a. Informes de la ciudad Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico para el Distrito Metropolitano de Quito [Español ] Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico para Santiago de Cali [Español ] Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico para Santiago de los Caballeros [Español ] b. Evaluación de peligros sísmicos Modelos probabilísticos de amenaza sísmica (PSHA) y conjuntos de datos para la evaluación de la amenaza a nivel urbano [PDF English ] Modelo Probabilístico de Amenaza Sísmica para la República Dominicana [PDF English | Español ] [Descargar Modelo ] Resultados de amenaza sísmica (condiciones en roca y en suelo [PDF English ] Análisis de la amenaza sísmica a escala urbana [PDF English ] c. Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico Resumen ejecutivo sobre la evaluación del riesgo sísmico urbano para las ciudades de Quito, Cali y Santiago de los Caballeros [PDF English ] Tipologías constructivas en Quito, Cali and Santiago de los Caballeros [PDF Español ] Base de datos de exposición georreferenciada de población y edificios en cada ciudad de TREQ [Cali ] [Quito ] [Santiago ] Base de datos de funciones de fragilidad y vulnerabilidad para cada clase de edificio presente en el modelo de exposición [Datos ] Mapas y métricas de riesgo para cada ciudad [Cali ] [Quito ] [Santiago ] d. Escenarios de la ciudad Base de datos con rupturas seleccionadas para análisis de escenarios [Cali ] [Quito ] [Santiago ] Evaluación del escenarios de amenaza para sismos representativos en Quito, Cali y Santiago de los Caballeros [PDF English ] e. Aplicaciones Urbanas Deslizamientos y licuefacción inducidos por sismo en Cali [PDF English ] Mejora de la comprensión mundial sobre la amenaza y riesgo sísmico Esta parte del programa fue diseñada para mejorar la comprensión y el conocimiento de la amenaza y el riesgo sísmico, y para ayudar a cerrar la brecha entre la información producida en estudios detallados de amenaza y riesgo y su comunicación a una amplia variedad de partes interesadas (que van desde locales expertos con competencias para evaluar el riesgo sísmico, a los tomadores de decisiones responsables de la implementación de medidas de reducción del riesgo). a. Sitio web para la capacitación en línea de OpenQuake La capacitación en línea de OpenQuake se diseñó para diferentes tipos de audiencia con diversos antecedentes y experiencia. A través de esta plataforma, los participantes interactuaron con los equipos científicos y técnicos del GEM para conocer los principales conceptos de la evaluación del riesgo sísmico, así como las características básicas del software de OpenQuake. [English | Español ] b. Manual de OpenQuake en formato online El manual oficial se convirtió de látex al formato reStructuredText gracias al apoyo de @USAID. El nuevo manual está ahora en línea en formato HTML y se puede accederse en: [Webpage English ] c. Tutoriales en video sobre peligros sísmicos y análisis de riesgos usando OpenQuake El proyecto ha producido 15 videos de capacitación técnica utilizando el software de OpenQuake (en inglés y español), 7 videos con material para difundir los modelos y resultados de la evaluación del riesgo urbano en las ciudades TREQ y 2 videos para comunicar el riesgo sísmico al público en general. público. OQ Engine Video Tutorials [ English | Español ] d. Manual para realizar análisis de amenaza sísmica Este manual presenta los conceptos básicos de la metodología clásica de PSHA y el amplio espectro de alternativas para modelar la sismicidad y las incertidumbres (epistémicas y aleatorias) en el software de OpenQuake. La evaluación probabilística del peligro sísmico (PSHA) es la metodología principal para evaluar el peligro potencial que representan los terremotos. Los mapas de amenaza se utilizan ampliamente en los códigos sísmicos nacionales para la zonificación de la amenaza sísmica y las disposiciones de diseño estructural. [PDF English ] e. Capacitando a educadores TREQ ha colaborado con cinco profesores universitarios de América Latina para conceptualizar, crear e implementar un curso unificado para el estudio del riesgo sísmico a nivel universitario. Los folletos en inglés y español explican con más detalle el concepto detrás de esta iniciativa y describen los primeros resultados y experiencias de los profesores de Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala y México. [PDF English | Español ] Comunicación y sensibilización sobre terremotos Las actividades de este componente se centraron en sensibilizar al público sobre la amenaza y el riesgo sísmico mediante la capacitación de un grupo diverso de profesionales en reducción del riesgo de desastres (RRD), junto con el personal a cargo de comunicar los riesgos al público, y mediante la realización de talleres comunitarios en áreas seleccionadas de las ciudades piloto. Artículos de noticias Eventos El seminario web Comprensión del riesgo sísmico a través del desarrollo de capacidades y el intercambio de conocimientos atrae a cientos de participantes de todo el mundo. [Article ] [Event page English | Español ] [Video ] Presentación del modelo PSHA nacional para la República Dominicana: un seminario web conjunto organizado por el Servicio Geológico Nacional Dominicano en cooperación con GEM, Oficina Nacional de Evaluación Sísmica y Vulnerabilidad de Infraestructura y la Oficina de Asistencia Humanitaria de USAID. [Event flyer Español ] [Video English | Español ] ---- Artículos Raising Earthquake Risk Awareness: TREQ’s community workshops for the general public Urban hazard assessment of selected cities in Latin America Local solutions to global problems: reducing disaster risk through collaboration and openness TREQ Project Updates: Site Effects Modelling and Urban Exposure Models USGS has joined the TREQ initiative for urban earthquake scenarios TREQ capacity building: OQ online training updates Jan-Feb 2021 TREQ2020 – Capacity development and OpenQuake online training, year in review TREQ OpenQuake Online Training: Earthquake Scenarios - Ground Motion Fields Sept 2020 Más en la sección GEM News a. Material didáctico para sensibilizar a la comunidad sobre el riesgo sísmico: Aplicación para el área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá (AMVA) [PDF Español ] b. Video para comunicar el riesgo de terremoto al público en general [English | Español ] c. Guía para profesores para el desarrollo de un curso introductorio de riesgo sísmico [PDF Español ] d. Perfiles de respuesta y mitigación de riesgos urbanos para las ciudades TREQ [Cali ] [Quito ] [Santiago ] Boletin informativo El boletín del proyecto TREQ tiene la intención de compartir actividades en evaluación de riesgos urbanos y materiales de capacitación y educación sobre riesgos de terremotos con una amplia gama de partes interesadas locales de la academia, los sectores público y privado, así como la sociedad civil en América Latina,el Caribe, y más allá. Newsletter no. 3 - May 2021 Newsletter no. 2 - September 2020 Newsletter no. 1 - March 2020 Maiden issue [English ] Maiden issue [Españo ] BUSINESS NEWS Concientizando el Riesgo: talleres para el público en general 1/4 BUSINESS NEWS Inicio del proyecto de marzo de 2020 1/4 BUSINESS NEWS Fotos de la formación OpenQuake Online de noviembre de 2020 1/2 BUSINESS NEWS Reuniones en Quito 1/10 BUSINESS NEWS Reuniones en Guayaquil 1/1 Visión general TREQ Resumen Ejecutivo [English ] Evaluación de la amenaza sísmica Modelos probabilísticos de amenaza sísmica (PSHA) y conjuntos de datos para la evaluación de la amenaza a nivel urbano [English ] Modelo Probabilístico de Amenaza Sísmica para la República Dominicana [English | Español ] [Descargar Modelo ] Resultados de amenaza sísmica (condiciones en roca y en suelo [English ] Análisis de la amenaza sísmica a escala urbana [English ] Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico Resumen ejecutivo sobre la evaluación del riesgo sísmico urbano para las ciudades de Quito, Cali y Santiago de los Caballeros [English ] Tipologías constructivas en Quito, Cali and Santiago de los Caballeros [Español ] Escenarios sísmicos Evaluación del escenarios de amenaza para sismos representativos en Quito, Cali y Santiago de los Caballeros [English ] Aplicaciones urbanas Deslizamientos y licuefacción inducidos por sismo en Cali [English ] Informes de la ciudad Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico para el Distrito Metropolitano de Quito [Español ] Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico para Santiago de Cali [Español ] Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico para Santiago de los Caballeros [Español ] Formación y comunicación del riesgo sísmico Manual de capacitación sobre análisis probabilístico de riesgos sísmicos (PSHA) [English ] Material didáctico para sensibilizar a la comunidad sobre el riesgo sísmico. Aplicación para el área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá (AMVA) [Español ] Guía para profesores para el desarrollo de un curso introductorio de riesgo sísmico [Español ]
- treq project | Global Earthquake Model Foundation
Projects Summary The Training and Communication for Earthquake Risk Assessment (TREQ) Project was designed to demonstrate how earthquake hazard and risk assessment can inform decision makers in the development of risk reduction policies, as well as how earthquake risk can be properly communicated to stakeholders and the public in general. [PDF Executive Summary English ] Objectives The project was organized into two main parts. The first one aimed to develop capacity for urban earthquake hazard and risk assessment in Latin America, Quito (Ecuador), Cali (Colombia), and Santiago de los Caballeros (Dominican Republic); while the second part was to develop training, educational and communication material to enhance the understanding of earthquake risk worldwide. The program was tailored for a wide spectrum of stakeholders, categorized into four main groups: governance (decision-makers/public authorities), industry (practitioners and professionals), academia (researchers and professors), and the community. Collaborators Ecuador Municipalidad de Quito Escuela Politécnica Nacional (EPN) Instituto Geofísico (IG) Colegio de Ingenieros Civiles de Pichincha (CICP) Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador Dominican Republic Municipalidad de Santiago de los Caballeros Servicio Geológico Nacional (SGN) Oficina Nacional de Evaluación Sísmica y Vulnerabilidad de Infraestructuras y Edificaciones (ONESVIE) Comité Técnico Nacional (CTN) Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra (PUCMM) Colombia Municipalidad de Santiago de Cali Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) Departamento Administrativo de Planeación Municipal (DAPM), Cali Universidad EAFIT, Medellin Unidad Nacional de Gestión del Riesgo de Desastres (UNGRD) Costa Rica Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) Mexico Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC) Location The project was implemented in the pilot cities of Quito (Ecuador), Cali (Colombia), and Santiago de los Caballeros (Dominican Republic). Additionally, the project also reached more than 600 participants from 64 countries for its online OpenQuake training sessions. TREQ Project Training and Communication for Earthquake Risk Assessment (TREQ) English version Versión en español Overview Risk Assessment Training Outreach Photos Reports Urban risk assessment in Latin America and the Caribbean The following deliverables were generated in this component: seismic hazard and risk assessment at the urban scale for the three TREQ cities: Quito (Ecuador), Cali (Colombia), and Santiago de los Caballeros (Dominican Republic). State-of-art models were developed for each city in close collaboration with local partners. The input models and results are available at the URL address below: [github.com/gem/treq-riesgo-urbano/ ] a. City reports Seismic Risk Assessment for the Metropolitan District of Quito [Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico para el Distrito Metropolitano de Quito] [Español ] Seismic Risk Assessment for Santiago de Cali [Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico para Santiago de Cali] [Español ] Seismic Risk Assessment for Santiago de los Caballeros [Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico para Santiago de los Caballeros] [Español ] b. Seismic Hazard Assessment PSHA models and datasets for urban hazard assessment [Modelos probabilísticos de amenaza sísmica (PSHA) y conjuntos de datos para la evaluación de la amenaza a nivel urbano] [PDF English ] Probabilistic seismic hazard model for the Dominican Republic [Modelo Probabilístico de Amenaza Sísmica para la República Dominicana] [PDF English | Español ] [Download Model ] Seismic hazard results (rock and soil conditions) [Resultados de amenaza sísmica (condiciones en roca y en suelo)] [PDF English ] Seismic hazard analysis at the urban scale [Análisis de la amenaza sísmica a escala urbana] [PDF English ] c. Seismic Risk Assessment Executive summary Urban seismic risk assessment for the cities of Quito, Cali and Santiago de los Caballeros [Resumen ejecutivo sobre la evaluación del riesgo sísmico urbano para las ciudades de Quito, Cali y Santiago de los Caballeros] [PDF English ] Building classes in Quito, Cali and Santiago de los Caballeros [Tipologías constructivas en Quito, Cali and Santiago de los Caballeros] [PDF Español ] Geo-referenced exposure database of population and buildings in the TREQ city [Base de datos de exposición georreferenciada de población y edificios en cada ciudad de TREQ] [Cali ] [Quito ] [Santiago ] Database of fragility and vulnerability functions for each building class present in the exposure model [Base de datos de funciones de fragilidad y vulnerabilidad para cada clase de edificio presente en el modelo de exposición] [Data ] Maps and risk metrics generated for each city [Mapas y métricas de riesgo para cada ciudad] [Cali ] [Quito ] [Santiago ] d. City scenarios Database with ruptures selected for scenario analysis [Base de datos con rupturas seleccionadas para análisis de escenarios] [Cali ] [Quito ] [Santiago ] Scenario hazard assessment for the representative earthquakes in Quito, Cali and Santiago de los Caballeros [Evaluación del escenarios de amenaza para sismos representativos en Quito, Cali y Santiago de los Caballeros] [PDF English ] e. Urban Applications Earthquake induced landslides and liquefaction in Cali [Deslizamientos y licuefacción inducidos por sismo en Cali] [PDF English ] Improving global capacity for seismic hazard and risk This part of the program was designed to improve the understanding and awareness of earthquake hazard and risk, and to help bridge the gap between the information produced in detailed hazard and risk assessment studies and its communication to a wide variety of stakeholders (which range from local experts with the remit to assess seismic risk to decision-makers responsible for the implementation of risk reduction measures). a. Website for OpenQuake online training The OpenQuake online training was designed for different types of audience with diverse background and expertise. Through this platform, participants interacted with GEM scientific and technical teams to learn the main concepts of earthquake risk assessment, along with the basic features of the engine. [English | Español ] b. OpenQuake manual in online format The official manual has been converted from latex into reStructuredText format made possible by @USAID support. The new manual is now online in HTML format and can be accessed at: [Webpage English ] c. Video tutorials on seismic hazard and risk analysis using OpenQuake The project has produced 15 videos on technical training using the OpenQuake-engine (in English and Spanish), 7 videos with material to disseminate the models and results of urban risk assessment in the TREQ cities, and 2 videos for communicating earthquake risk to the general public. OQ Engine Video Tutorials [ English | Español ] d. Manual to perform seismic hazard analysis This manual presents the basic concepts of classical PSHA and the wide spectrum of alternatives to model seismicity and uncertainties (epistemic and aleatory) in the OpenQuake-engine. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) is the principal methodology for assessing the potential hazard posed by earthquakes. The hazard maps generated with the hazard calculator are widely used in national seismic codes for hazard zonation and structural design provisions. [PDF English ] [Example materials ] [More info ] e. Training the Trainers TREQ has engaged and collaborated with five university professors from Latin America to conceptualize, create and implement a unified course for the study of seismic risk at the university level. Brochures in English and Spanish further explain the concept behind this initiative and outline the early results and experiences of the professors from Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Mexico. [PDF English | Español ] Communicating and raising earthquake risk awareness The activities in this component focused on raising awareness of the public on earthquake hazard and risk by training a diverse group of disaster risk reduction (DRR) professionals together with personnel in charge of communicating risk to the public, and by conducting community-based workshops in selected areas of the pilot cities by those who were trained by the project. a. Educational material to raise seismic risk awareness: Application for the Metropolitan Area of Aburra Valley (AMVA) [Material didáctico para sensibilizar a la comunidad sobre el riesgo sísmico: Aplicación para el área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá (AMVA)] [PDF Español ] b. Video to communicate earthquake risk to the general public [Video para comunicar el riesgo de terremoto al público en general] [English | Español ] c. Guidelines for teachers for the development of an introductory course on seismic risk [Guía para profesores para el desarrollo de un curso introductorio de riesgo sísmico] [PDF Español ] d. Urban risk mitigation and response profiles for the TREQ cities [Perfiles de respuesta y mitigación de riesgos urbanos para las ciudades TREQ] [Cali ] [Quito ] [Santiago ] News articles Events Understanding seismic risk through capacity development and knowledge sharing webinar draws hundreds of participants from around the world [Article ] [Event page English | Español ] [Video ] Presentation of the national PSHA model for the Dominican Republic: a joint webinar hosted by Servicio Geológico Nacional Dominicano in cooperation with GEM, Oficina Nacional de Evaluación Sísmica y Vulnerabilidad de Infraestructura. and USAID's Bureau for Humanitarian Assistance . [Event flyer Español ] [Video English | Español ] ---- Articles Raising Earthquake Risk Awareness: TREQ’s community workshops for the general public Urban hazard assessment of selected cities in Latin America Local solutions to global problems: reducing disaster risk through collaboration and openness TREQ Project Updates: Site Effects Modelling and Urban Exposure Models USGS has joined the TREQ initiative for urban earthquake scenarios TREQ capacity building: OQ online training updates Jan-Feb 2021 TREQ2020 – Capacity development and OpenQuake online training, year in review TREQ OpenQuake Online Training: Earthquake Scenarios - Ground Motion Fields Sept 2020 More at GEM News section Newsletter The TREQ project newsletter was intented to share activities in urban risk assessment, and earthquake risk training and education materials with a wide-range of local stakeholders from the academia, private and public sectors, as well as the civil society in Latin America, the Caribbean and beyond. Newsletter no. 3 - May 2021 Newsletter no. 2 - September 2020 Newsletter no. 1 - March 2020 Maiden issue [English ] Maiden issue [Españo ] BUSINESS NEWS More TREQ photos here Facebook album 1/4 BUSINESS NEWS Raising Risk Awareness: workshops for the general public 1/4 BUSINESS NEWS March 2020 Project Kickoff 1/4 BUSINESS NEWS Photos from the November 2020 OpenQuake Online training 1/2 BUSINESS NEWS Meetings in Quito 1/10 BUSINESS NEWS Meetings in Guayaquil 1/1 Overview TREQ Executive Summary [English ] Seismic Hazard Assessment PSHA models and datasets for urban hazard assessment [English ] Probabilistic seismic hazard model for the Dominican Republic [English | Español ] [Download Model ] Seismic Hazard Results (rock and soil conditions) [English ] Seismic hazard analysis at the urban scale [English ] Seismic Risk Assessment Executive summary Urban seismic risk assessment for the cities of Quito, Cali and Santiago de los Caballeros [English ] Building classes in Quito, Cali and Santiago de los Caballeros [Español ] City Scenarios Scenario selection for representative earthquakes in Quito, Cali and Santiago de los Caballeros [English ] Urban applications Earthquake-induced liquefaction and landslides in Cali, Colombia [English ] City reports Seismic Risk Assessment for the Metropolitan District of Quito [Español ] Seismic Risk Assessment for Santiago de Cali [Español ] Seismic Risk Assessment for Santiago de los Caballeros [Español ] Training and communicating earthquake risk Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) Training Manual [English ] [Example materials ] [More info ] Educational material to raise seismic risk awareness: Application for the Metropolitan Area of Aburra Valley (AMVA) [Español ] Guidelines for teachers for the development of an introductory course on seismic risk [Español ]
- ssahara project | Global Earthquake Model Foundation
Projects Background The East African Rift System (EARS) is the major active tectonic feature of the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region. Although the seismicity level of such a divergent plate boundary can be described as moderate, several damaging earthquakes have been reported in historical times, and the seismic risk is exacerbated by the high vulnerability of the local buildings and structures. Formulation and enforcement of national seismic codes is therefore an essential risk mitigation strategy. A reliable risk assessment must be based on an updated and reliable seismic hazard model for the region. The last published regional model for SSA was developed within the frame of the GSHAP project and is almost 20 years old (Midzi et al., 1999). The availability of new data, local and regional seismotectonic studies and recently developed methods and tools prompt the development of a new PSHA model summarizing the current state of knowledge in Sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives In September 2014, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) GEM funding support to implement a program entitled “Reducing Earthquake Risk collaboratively by Building Capacity and Leveraging GEM’s Open Tools and Resources”. One of the objectives of this program was: to build the capacity in sub-Saharan Africa for integrated risk assessment and development of city earthquake scenarios involving local decision-makers. The project produced the SSA-GEM homogenized catalogue; the Seismic Source Zones; the Probabilistic Hazard Calculations; the Strain Rate Model; earthquake risk in East Sub-Saharan Africa; the residential building stock; and the Social Vulnerability and Integrated Risk in Sub Sahara Africa. Collaborators The development of a regional model would not have been possible without the contribution of experts from the local scientific community. Partnership with local governmental institutions and authorities was an essential step to facilitate model acceptance and for potential integration with national seismic codes. GEM worked with the following institutions for the implementation of the SSAHARA project. African Union; AfricaArray; FEPRA – Ethiopia; University of Pennsylvania; Addis Ababa City Government; UNDP Regional Office; and international agencies, municipalities and government agencies Location Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda SSAHARA Project Sub Saharan Hazard and Risk Assessment (SSAHARA) English version Versión en español Overview Outcomes Training Outreach Photos Publications Website SSAHARA wiki website containing technical descriptions and overview of the project. News Preventionweb article on the release of the Africa Model developed as part of the Sub-Sahara Hazard and Risk Assessment (SSAHARA) project funded by USAID.
- carec project | Global Earthquake Model Foundation
Projects Willis Towers Watson, a GEM Advisor Sponsor is leading the consortium of organizations to implement the project, “Developing a Disaster Risk Transfer Facility in the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Region” supported by the Asian Development Bank. The GEM Risk Team is responsible for the exposure and seismic vulnerability components of the project, with the Hazard Team providing support in the preparation of risk profiles for countries in the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Region. The project has three main components: (i) development of disaster risk assessments and modeling in all CAREC countries; (ii) design of a regional pilot disaster risk transfer facility for at least three CAREC countries; and (iii) capacity building and awareness raising activities to sensitize key public and private stakeholders in all CAREC countries about the benefits of disaster risk reduction, risk retention and risk transfer solutions. Willis Towers Watson, a GEM Advisor Sponsor is leading the consortium of organizations that will implement the project. The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation, or CAREC Program is a partnership of 11 countries (Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, People's Republic of China, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan), supported by 6 multilateral institutions, working together to promote development through cooperation, leading to accelerated growth and poverty reduction. Central Asia CAREC Developing a Disaster Risk Transfer Facility in the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Region English version Versión en español GEM has started a new project with WTW supported by the Asian Development Bank.
- Event Summary | Global Earthquake Model Foundation | Italy
EVENT SUMMARY GLOBAL EARTHQUAKE MODEL 2018 A Step Toward Earthquake Resilience 5th of December 2018 | 0900h - 1800h CAR College, Pavia, Italy Collaboration and openness – keys to success of the global earthquake model GEM scientists presented the global earthquake hazard and risk maps in Pavia, Italy to more than 130 delegates around the world from public, private and academic organizations that participated in the GEM2018 launch on December 5th. The maps and the underlying data behind them will enhance global disaster risk reduction strategies according to representatives of UNISDR and World Bank/GFDRR. “This is a great contribution towards putting to the public an open data, collaborative effort with many partners on the best available data on earthquake risk around the world,” said Ricardo Mena UNISDR Chief of Support and Monitoring of Sendai Framework Implementation. Emma Phillips, Senior Disaster Risk Management Specialist from GFDRR’s Innovation Lab added, “These products and tools that are coming out of GEM can really help in the process of making informed decisions. The way we think about risk in an open data aspect is very useful when we engage with our clients because we are able to rely on this open information that GEM provides.” GEM, a non-profit organization that started as a pilot project in 2009, has collaborated with a wide range of stakeholders to deliver the global maps, data and analysis tools – bannered by the OpenQuake engine, the software used to run calculations and build the global mosaic of models. Marco Pagani, GEM Hazard Team Leader, presented the global earthquake hazard map , the first of its kind since GSHAP was presented in 1999, highlighting the differences and similarities as well as the methods and tools used to complete the new map. Vitor Silva, GEM Risk Team Leader, presented the global earthquake risk map comprised of national and regional exposure and vulnerability models. It is the most comprehensive global assessment of earthquake risk to date. The products released at the event are as follows: 1. Hazard and risk maps (print and PDF/PNG downloadable files) 2. Interactive map tool Global hazard map with PGA value for selected cell Global exposure with number & value of buildings per country Global risk map with average annual economic losses per country, link to risk profile 3. V1.0 Country Profiles for around 120 countries (PDF download) 4. Updated Active Fault Database (on github) 5. Updated vulnerability Database (300 functions) “The GEM family is very pleased with the products that have been released today. But the more significant achievement was the process on how we got here, the principles that guided us: collaboration, credibility, openness and public good,” said John Schneider – GEM Secretary General. More products and enhancements are planned for the next two years such as the availability of all the models in OpenQuake engine, improved exposure data and vulnerability functions as well as updated Country Risk Profiles. Peer-reviewed technical papers for the many contributions to the earthquake hazard and risk models will be published in a special issue of Earthquake Spectra in early 2020. LINKS Event Details Feedback Contact Us 1. Introduction & Agenda 2. Participants 3. How we built the maps and models Global Earthquake Hazard overview (53MB ) Global Earthquake Risk overview (435MB ) 4. Featured Presentations Urban risk and resilience Developing an urban earthquake risk assessment capability and applications to cities in Colombia (7.9MB ) Developing a National Earthquake Resilience Strategy for Canada (13MB ) Disaster impact and closing the protection gap Impacts and lessons from the recent Indonesian earthquakes in Lombok and Palu, Indonesia (55MB ) Closing the protection gap for developing countries (2.1MB ) 5. Global Maps , Country Profiles and Interactive Viewer 6. GEM2018 Highlights (video) 7. GEM2018 Full Video (playlist) Introduction Global Earthquake Hazard presentation Global Earthquake Risk Presentation Developing an urban earthquake risk assessment capability and applications to cities in Colombia Developing a National Earthquake Resilience Strategy for Canada Impacts and lessons from the recent Indonesian earthquakes in Lombok and Palu, Indonesia Closing the protection gap for developing countries Panel 1: Uses for the maps and models Panel 2: Drivers and demands for the maps and models Panel 3: Future Directions for models Exploring the maps Breakout Sessions GEM-Chinese Earthquake Administration MoU signing, and Closing Remarks 8. Flickr Photos Set 1 | Set 2 9. 5thDEC Press Release & Online News 10. Post Event Interviews 11. GEM2018 Breakout Sessions with Prof. Iain Stewart GEM2018 In Photos Set 1 Set 2 Photo credit: Ivan Sarfatti