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Collaborative Risk Assessment for Volcanoes and Earthquakes (CRAVE)



The need to better understand the existing earthquake and volcano risk led to the establishment of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) and the Global Volcano Model (GVM) network. GEM, founded in Italy in 2009, has been developing open tools and models to calculate and communicate seismic hazard and risk worldwide. Similarly, the GVM network represents an international community aiming to provide systematic evidence, data and analysis of volcanic hazards and risk on national, regional and global scales working with monitoring institutions to implement the best science and DRR strategies. Both GEM and the GVM network are currently leading international efforts that aim to mitigate the adverse effects from these perils.

South America and ASEAN regions have been the target of numerous studies in the last two decades. However, most of these studies only focused on one component of the risk problem (e.g. hazard, vulnerability). Such limitation prevents the development of a comprehensive risk profile to properly inform decision-makers. The CRAVE project, through the current GEM and GVM network tools will offer a timely and unique opportunity to advance the understanding of seismic and volcanic risk in the region.


This project aims to develop a common framework for the assessment of the impact from earthquakes and volcanoes, with an application in three countries located around the Pacific Rim. The activities comprised in this project feature several events to bring together global partners with the mandate to calculate and communicate seismic and volcanic risk, as well as training events to increase the capacity of local institutions in the assessment of their hazard and risk.


This project includes several partners including the following:

  • British Geological Survey;

  • the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS);

  • the University of Edinburgh;

  • the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS); and 

key organizations from the region including:

  • the Colombian Geological Survey;

  • the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology;(PHIVOLCS); and 

  • Badan Geologi (Indonesia).


Colombia, Indonesia and the Philippines

Volcano Scenario tool for OpenQuake

The CRAVE project required the implementation of a new calculator in the OpenQuake Engine called ‘multi_risk’, which is able to manage at the same time different types of hazards, specifically ash fall, pyroclastic density currents flow, lava flow and lahar flow, passed as CSV files with headers ‘lon’, ‘lat’, ‘intensity’. 

The calculator is also able to consider the difference between dry and wet ash by setting the `ash_wet_amplification_factor` parameter in the job.ini file. The output of the calculator is a CSV file with ‘Exposure + Risk’ fields. 

For convenience we also produced a ‘Total Risk’ output which is simply the sum over the assets of the values in the ‘Exposure + Risk’ output. 

In order to support other formats used in the volcanic hazard community we prepared tools to convert hazard footprints into the format accepted by the OpenQuake-engine. These tools were included in the Input Preparation Toolkit.


Volcano Model example

Full example of the volcano model developed with the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC).


OpenQuake Volcano Risk Assessment

OpenQuake for volcano risk assessment? Yes! Now you can perform volcanic scenarios. Checkout our tutorial!



The presentation of the tools and datasets from CRAVE took place in Bogota (Colombia) and Bandung (Indonesia). These events were organized by the Colombian Geological Survey and the Institute of Technology of Bandung.

Kick-off Meeting 

The kick-off meeting took place in Bogota at the offices of the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC) on the 22nd of February 2018. During the meeting the goals of the CRAVE project were presented by GEM, as well as some concepts on seismic hazard, vulnerability and risk modelling. 

The British Geological Survey (BGS) presented general aspects of volcano hazard modelling and the mission of the Global Volcano Model, the SGC demonstrated how three volcanoes are currently being monitored and how seismic hazard maps have been developed in the past and the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) presented the current situation in terms of volcano hazard monitoring and assessment in Papua New Guinea. 

During this event all partners also discussed the way forward, including the division of tasks, case studies, relevant risk outputs and the timeframe for the next workshops.

Bandung, Indonesia (20-22 of May) Workshop – IT Bandung

With support from the Institute of Technology of Bandung (ITB), the event featured a day of presentations and discussion with representatives from the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), the Indonesian Ministry of Public Works, the National Disaster Management Agency (Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana - BNPB), the Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency (Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika - BMKG), the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) and the British Geological Survey (BGS).

Bogota, Colombia (13-17 of May) Workshop - Geological Survey of Colombia

Five days in Bogota provided a fruitful time to share and discuss the national volcanic hazard and risk assessment, as well as risk management challenges in the country. The workshop was divided into two main parts: 

  • The first part focused on the technical aspects of volcanic hazard and risk assessment. Representatives from the three mains national volcanological observatories participated in the sessions (Manizales, Popayan and Pasto).

  • The second part of the workshop was conceived for a broader audience, involving stakeholders that contribute to the Disaster Risk Reduction strategy in the country.

CRAVE project kicks off in Colombia

The USAID project – Collaborative Risk Assessment for Volcanoes and Earthquakes or CRAVE successfully kicked off with a workshop in Bogota, Colombia.


CRAVE in Colombia and Indonesia

Members of the USAID-supported project – CRAVE from Colombia and Indonesia participated in two separate workshops to discuss volcanic threats and risks.


CRAVE workshop, Bandung, Indonesia

Workshop at IT Bandung exploring open tools and models for #earthquake and #volcano #hazard and #risk assessment with project partners.

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CRAVE project workshops held in Bogota, Colombia


CRAVE project workshops held in Bandung, Indonesia

CRAVE Project Final Report

Final Report to USAID/OFDA for: CRAVE-Collaborative Risk Assessment for Volcanoes and Earthquakes



The contents of this project website such as studies, reports, audio-visual, news articles, blogs, and other information or media products including those in the external links are made possible by the generous support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents are the responsibility of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Foundation and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government.

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