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  • Southeast Asia | Global EarthQuake Model Foundation

    GEM License Types – GNU Affero General Public License, used mostly for software AGPL – Creative Commons, By-Attribution CC BY – Creative Commons, By-Attribution, Share-Alike CC BY-SA – Creative Commons, By Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share-Alike CC BY-NC-SA – Non-Disclosure Agreement (By request for public-good, non-commercial use.) NDA – If a product is not available under a license that suits your needs, such as for commercial application, please contact us to discuss your use case and other partnership/licensing options and fees. Other/Commercial More details on GEM’s licensing terms . here Products Southeast Asia Product type Model Now DESCRIPTION Southeast Asia is part of GEM's Global Earthquake Hazard and Risk Maps released to the public in December 2018. As part of the mosaic, the seismic hazard, exposure and vulnerability models employed in the calculations were either provided by national institutions, or developed within the scope of regional programs, bilateral collaborations, or by GEM. Click View for details. APPLICATION Product category Model Contact ​ License type ​ Maintained by ​ Component ​ Documentation Hazard Risk Contributors Manual Download Hazard Download Risk Contact GEM Download Download Exposure Download Vulnerability Hazard The seismic hazard model for Continental Southeast Asia (SEA) covers Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Singapore, and West Malaysia. The model was developed by a group of scientists from Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. Maintained by Chan/Ornammatah Product type Model Availability Now Product restrictions Open By Attribution, Share-Alike and Commercial use provided the by-products are shared under the same conditions as the original license Licence type CC BY-SA Send us a request Documentation View Exposure Exposure data for Admin level 1 for population, commercial, industrial and residential buildings Maintained by GEM Product type Model Availability Now Product restrictions Non-Disclosure Agreement (By request for public-good, non-commercial use.) Licence type CC BY-SA Send us a request Documentation View The current model for SouthEast Asia does not have specific documentation. For some information about the hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment methods used for SouthEast, readers are referred to the following publications: : Martins L, Silva V (2020). Development of a Fragility and Vulnerability Model for Global Seismic Risk Assessment. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering. Vulnerability modelling https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10518-020-00885-1 : Silva V, Amo-Oduro D, Calderon A, Costa C, Dabbeek J, Despotaki V, Martins L, Pagani M, Rao A, Simionato M, Viganò D, Yepes-Estrada C, Acevedo A, Crowley H, Horspool N, Jaiswal K, Journeay M, Pittore M (2019). Development of a Global Seismic Risk Model. Earthquake Spectra, doi.org/10.1177/8755293019899953. Loss assessment https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/8755293019899953 Vulnerability Vulnerability curves for all building classes Maintained by GEM Product type Model Availability Now Product restrictions Open By Attribution, Share-Alike and Commercial use provided the by-products are shared under the same conditions as the original license Licence type CC BY-SA Send us a request Documentation View The current model for SouthEast Asia does not have specific documentation. For some information about the hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment methods used for SouthEast, readers are referred to the following publications: : Martins L, Silva V (2020). Development of a Fragility and Vulnerability Model for Global Seismic Risk Assessment. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering. Vulnerability modelling https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10518-020-00885-1 : Silva V, Amo-Oduro D, Calderon A, Costa C, Dabbeek J, Despotaki V, Martins L, Pagani M, Rao A, Simionato M, Viganò D, Yepes-Estrada C, Acevedo A, Crowley H, Horspool N, Jaiswal K, Journeay M, Pittore M (2019). Development of a Global Seismic Risk Model. Earthquake Spectra, doi.org/10.1177/8755293019899953. Loss assessment https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/8755293019899953 Country Profiles Maintained by GEM Licence type CC BY-SA Availability Now Product restrictions Open By Attribution, Share-Alike and Commercial use provided the by-products are shared under the same conditions as the original license

  • Prospective evaluation of global earthquake forecast models: Two years of observations support merging smoothed seismicity with geodetic strain rates. Seismological Research Letters

    Publications SHORT INTRO The global earthquake activity rate (GEAR1) seismicity model uses an optimized combination of geodetic strain rates, hypotheses about converting strain rates to seismicity rates from plate tectonics, and earthquake-catalog data to estimate global Mw = 5:767 sh ... ALL DETAILS Prospective evaluation of global earthquake forecast models: Two years of observations support merging smoothed seismicity with geodetic strain rates. Seismological Research Letters Authors Strader A, Werner M, Bayona J, Maechling P, Silva F, Liukis M, Schorlemmer D Hazard Topic Year 2018 Publications Download The global earthquake activity rate (GEAR1) seismicity model uses an optimized combination of geodetic strain rates, hypotheses about converting strain rates to seismicity rates from plate tectonics, and earthquake-catalog data to estimate global Mw = 5:767 shallow (= 70 km) seismicity rates. It comprises two parent models: a strain rate-based model and a smoothedseismicity based model. The GEAR1 model was retrospectively evaluated and calibrated using earthquake data from 2005 to 2012, resulting in a preferred log-linear multiplicative combination of the parent forecasts. Since 1 October 2015, the GEAR1 model has undergone prospective evaluation within the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) testing center, forecasting Mw = 5:95 seismicity. We present initial prospective forecast test results for the GEAR1 model, its tectonic and seismicity components, and for the first iteration of the strain-rate-based model, during the 1 October 2015-7 September 2017 period. During the evaluation period, observed earthquakes are consistent with the GEAR1 forecast and comparative test results likewise support that GEAR1 is more informative than either of its components alone. Based on a combination of retrospective and prospective testing, the tectonic forecasts do not effectively anticipate observed spatial earthquake distribution, largely due to overlocalization of the model with respect to observed earthquake distributions. Abstract/Summary

  • Canada (v.2015) | Global EarthQuake Model Foundation

    GEM License Types – GNU Affero General Public License, used mostly for software AGPL – Creative Commons, By-Attribution CC BY – Creative Commons, By-Attribution, Share-Alike CC BY-SA – Creative Commons, By Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share-Alike CC BY-NC-SA – Non-Disclosure Agreement (By request for public-good, non-commercial use.) NDA – If a product is not available under a license that suits your needs, such as for commercial application, please contact us to discuss your use case and other partnership/licensing options and fees. Other/Commercial More details on GEM’s licensing terms . here Products Canada (v.2015) Product type Model Now DESCRIPTION Canada (v.2015) is part of GEM's Global Earthquake Hazard and Risk Maps released to the public in December 2018. As part of the mosaic, the seismic hazard, exposure and vulnerability models employed in the calculations were either provided by national institutions, or developed within the scope of regional programs, bilateral collaborations, or by GEM. Click View for details. APPLICATION Product category Model Contact ​ License type ​ Maintained by ​ Component ​ Documentation Hazard Risk Contributors Manual Download Hazard Download Risk Contact GEM Download Download Exposure Download Vulnerability Hazard The Global Hazard Mosaic coverage of Canada uses Canada's 5th Generation Seismic Hazard Model (Halchuk et al., 2015), produced by Natural Resources Canada (NRC), in order to develop the 2015 National Building Code of Canada. The model was originally developed for GSCFRISK software, and was subsequently converted into the OpenQuake (OQ) engine format by NRC. Small, additional adjustments were made by the GEM Secretariat in order to fit the mosaic criteria. Maintained by NRCan Product type Model Availability Now Product restrictions Open By Attribution and Share-Alike but not for commercial use Licence type CC BY-NC-SA Send us a request Documentation View Exposure Exposure data for Admin level 1 for population, commercial, industrial and residential buildings Maintained by GEM Product type Model Availability Now Product restrictions Non-Disclosure Agreement (By request for public-good, non-commercial use) Licence type NDA Send us a request Documentation View Exposure data and license information to be available on soon for population, commercial, industrial and residential buildings. NRCan’s Federal Geospatial Platform Vulnerability Vulnerability curves for all building classes Maintained by GEM Product type Model Availability Now Product restrictions Open By Attribution, Share-Alike and Commercial use provided the by-products are shared under the same conditions as the original license Licence type CC BY-SA Send us a request Documentation View Fragility and vulnerability functions developed by GEM and , to be published in an upcoming validation paper by NRCan. UBC Civil Engineering Country Profiles Maintained by GEM Licence type CC BY-SA Availability Now Product restrictions Open By Attribution, Share-Alike and Commercial use provided the by-products are shared under the same conditions as the original license

  • Large-area settlement pattern recognition from Landsat-8 data. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

    Publications SHORT INTRO The study presents an image processing and analysis pipeline that combines object-based image analysis with a Support Vector Machine to derive a multi-layered settlement product from Landsat-8 data over large areas. 43 image scenes are processed over large par ... ALL DETAILS Large-area settlement pattern recognition from Landsat-8 data. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Authors Wieland M, Pittore M Hazard Topic Year 2016 Publications Download The study presents an image processing and analysis pipeline that combines object-based image analysis with a Support Vector Machine to derive a multi-layered settlement product from Landsat-8 data over large areas. 43 image scenes are processed over large parts of Central Asia (Southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Eastern Uzbekistan). The main tasks tackled by this work include built-up area identification, settlement type classification and urban structure types pattern recognition. Besides commonly used accuracy assessments of the resulting map products, thorough performance evaluations are carried out under varying conditions to tune algorithm parameters and assess their applicability for the given tasks. As part of this, several research questions are being addressed. In particular the influence of the improved spatial and spectral resolution of Landsat-8 on the SVM performance to identify built-up areas and urban structure types are evaluated. Also the influence of an extended feature space including digital elevation model features is tested for mountainous regions. Moreover, the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties is analyzed and compared to the heterogeneity of the building stock within the computational unit of the segments. The study concludes that the information content of Landsat-8 images is sufficient for the tested classification tasks and even detailed urban structures could be extracted with satisfying accuracy. Freely available ancillary settlement point location data could further improve the built-up area classification. Digital elevation features and pan-sharpening could, however, not significantly improve the classification results. The study highlights the importance of dynamically tuned classifier parameters, and underlines the use of Shannon entropy computed from the soft answers of the SVM as a valid measure of the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties. Abstract/Summary

  • Global Earthquake Model: Community-Based Seismic Risk Assessment

    Publications SHORT INTRO The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) initiative aims to develop a global model of earthquake risk as an open source, community-driven project. In order to begin this in a structured way, a number of Global Components that cover the scientific modules of the model ... ALL DETAILS Global Earthquake Model: Community-Based Seismic Risk Assessment Authors Helen Crowley, Rui Pinho GEM Topic Year 2011 Publications Download The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) initiative aims to develop a global model of earthquake risk as an open source, community-driven project. In order to begin this in a structured way, a number of Global Components that cover the scientific modules of the model have been defined, and Requests for Proposals have been released, requesting international consortia to bid to lead these projects. Within the risk domain, 5 Global Components have been identified, with the following objectives: GEM Ontology and Taxonomy: to define the framework for calculating seismic risk and classify the components therein. Global Earthquake Consequences Database: to collect post-earthquake data such as loss of life, injuries, damage and economic loss into a common web-based repository. Global Exposure Database: to construct a global building and population inventory. Global Vulnerability Estimation Methods: to define levels of damage and loss as a function of ground motion intensity, for a global taxonomy of buildings. Inventory Data Capture Tools: to support the population of the exposure and consequences databases through innovative open-source tools. The consortia leading these global components will be required to define standards and best practice related to the methodologies used in seismic risk assessment and in particular the collection and storage of data needed therein. This chapter introduces these risk global components and describes the open source software and development platform that is being developed to provide access to and community interaction with the proposed data and tools. Abstract/Summary

  • The contribution of EMCA to landslide susceptibility mapping in Central Asia. Annals of Geophysics

    Publications SHORT INTRO Central Asia is one of the most exposed regions in the world to landslide hazard. The large variability of local geological materials, together with the difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitation locally and in quantifying the level of ground shaking, cal ... ALL DETAILS The contribution of EMCA to landslide susceptibility mapping in Central Asia. Annals of Geophysics Authors Saponaro A, Pilz M, Bindi D, Parolai S Hazard Topic Year 2015 Publications Download Central Asia is one of the most exposed regions in the world to landslide hazard. The large variability of local geological materials, together with the difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitation locally and in quantifying the level of ground shaking, call for harmonized procedures to better quantify the hazard and the negative impact of slope failures across the Central Asian countries. As a first step towards a quantitative landslide hazard and risk assessment, a landslide susceptibility analysis at regional scale has been carried out, by benefitting of novel seismic hazard outcomes reached in the frame of Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA) project. By combining information coming from diverse potential factors, it is possible to detect areas where a potential for landslides exists. Initial results allow the identification of areas that are more susceptible to landslides with a level of accuracy greater than 70%. The presented method is, therefore, capable of supporting land planning activities at the regional scale in places where only scarce data are available. Abstract/Summary

  • OpenQuake Engine (v.2020) | Global EarthQuake Model Foundation

    GEM License Types – GNU Affero General Public License, used mostly for software AGPL – Creative Commons, By-Attribution CC BY – Creative Commons, By-Attribution, Share-Alike CC BY-SA – Creative Commons, By Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share-Alike CC BY-NC-SA – Non-Disclosure Agreement (By request for public-good, non-commercial use.) NDA – If a product is not available under a license that suits your needs, such as for commercial application, please contact us to discuss your use case and other partnership/licensing options and fees. Other/Commercial More details on GEM’s licensing terms . here Products OpenQuake Engine (v.2020) Product type Software Now DESCRIPTION The OpenQuake Engine is the Global Earthquake Model Foundation’s (GEM) state-of-the-art, open-source software collaboratively developed for earthquake hazard and risk modelling. APPLICATION Product category Software Contact ​ License type ​ Maintained by ​ Component ​ Documentation Hazard Risk Contributors Manual Download Hazard Download Risk Contact GEM Download Download Exposure Download Vulnerability ​ The OpenQuake Engine is the Global Earthquake Model Foundation�s (GEM) state-of-the-art, open-source software collaboratively developed for earthquake hazard and risk modelling. Maintained by GEM Product type Software Availability Now Product restrictions Open By Attribution, Share-Alike and Commercial use provided the by-products are shared under the same conditions as the original license Licence type AGPL Send us a request Documentation View

  • Colombia Seismic Model

    Publications SHORT INTRO Colombia occupies a territory in which the forces of nature and their geological expression produce events that can be dangerous for the population. This environment is a challenge that demands the country (and us, as citizens) the best efforts to understand t ... ALL DETAILS Colombia Seismic Model Authors María Mónica Arcila Rivera, Servicio Geológico Colombiano; Julio García, Fundación Global Earthquake Model; Julián Santiago Montejo Espitia, Servicio Geológico Colombiano; Jaime Fernando Eraso; Jairo Andrés Valcárcel Torres, Servicio Geológico Colombiano; Miguel Genaro Mora Cuevas, Servicio Geológico Colombiano; Daniele Viganò, Fundación Global Earthquake Model; Marco Pagani, Fundación Global Earthquake Model; Fernando Javier Díaz Parra, Servicio Geológico Colombiano Hazard Topic Year 2020 Publications Download Colombia occupies a territory in which the forces of nature and their geological expression produce events that can be dangerous for the population. This environment is a challenge that demands the country (and us, as citizens) the best efforts to understand the dynamics of the earth, so that we can design our cities and infrastructure in the best possible way, using the available knowledge. Abstract/Summary

  • Exposure Data Development for the Global Earthquake Model: Inventory Data Capture Tools (IDCT)

    Publications SHORT INTRO The Global Earthquake Model represents a open initiative to develop software and tools for assessment of global seismic risk. This paper describes an open-source software suite and protocols for populating a Global Exposure Database of structural information b ... ALL DETAILS Exposure Data Development for the Global Earthquake Model: Inventory Data Capture Tools (IDCT) Authors J. Bevington , R. Eguchi, C. Huyck ImageCat Inc., Ashtead, UK. 2 Long Beach, CA, USA H. Crowley GEM Foundation, Pavia, Italy F. Dell'Acqua, G. Iannelli University of Pavia, Italy C. Jordan British Geological Survey, Keyworth, UK. J. Morley University of Nottingham, UK M. Wieland, S. Parolai, M. Pittore GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany K. Porter SPA Risk LLC, Denver, CO, USA. K. Saito Cambridge Architectural Research, UK P. Sarabandi Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA A. Wright OpenGeo, New York City, NY, USA M. Wyss World Agency of Planetary Monitoring & Earthquake Risk Reduction (WAPMERR), Geneva, Switzerland Physical Risk Topic Year 2012 Publications Download The Global Earthquake Model represents a open initiative to develop software and tools for assessment of global seismic risk. This paper describes an open-source software suite and protocols for populating a Global Exposure Database of structural information being developed by GEM’s Inventory Data Capture Tools (IDCT) risk global component. Several data collection methods are used: remote sensing, direct field observations, and statisticallyinferred mapping schemes. Data are collected on pre-earthquake inventory, as well as post-event damage: rudimentary building information from optical satellite or aerial sensors, including the building footprints and height. Field-based observations collected on digital and paper tools by survey teams allow expert users to generate detailed structural information, including structural type, year built, and occupancy. Mapping schemes allow the generation of exposure information for user-defined areas of homogenous urban land use, using sampled field observations. These methods converge to feed GEM's Global Exposure Database and the Earthquake Consequences Database. Abstract/Summary

  • Guidelines for Empirical Vulnerability Assessment

    Publications SHORT INTRO These Guidelines provide state-of-the-art guidance on the construction of vulnerability relationships from post-earthquake survey data. The Guidelines build on and extend procedures for empirical fragility and vulnerability curve construction found in the lite ... ALL DETAILS Guidelines for Empirical Vulnerability Assessment Authors Rossetto, T., I. Ioannou, D.N. Grant and T. Maqsood Physical Risk Topic Year 2014 Publications Download These Guidelines provide state-of-the-art guidance on the construction of vulnerability relationships from post-earthquake survey data. The Guidelines build on and extend procedures for empirical fragility and vulnerability curve construction found in the literature, and present a flexible framework for the construction of these relationships that allows for a number of curve-fitting methods and ground motion intensity measure types (IMTs) to be adopted. The philosophy behind the design of the framework is that the characteristics of the data should determine the most appropriate statistical model and intensity measure type used to represent them. Hence, several combinations of these must be trialled in the determination of an optimum fragility or vulnerability curve, where the optimum curve is defined by the statistical model that provides the best fit to the data as determined by a number of goodness-of-fit tests. The Guidelines are essentially a roadmap for the process, providing recommendations and help in deciding which statistical model to attempt, and promote trialling of models and IMTs. Abstract/Summary

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