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503 results found for ""

  • SHAPE BASED CLASSIFICATION OF SEISMIC BUILDING STRUCTURAL TYPES

    Publications SHORT INTRO This paper investigates automatic prediction of seismic building structural types described by the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) taxonomy, by combining remote sensing, cadastral and inspection data in a supervised machine learning approach. Our focus lies on t ... ALL DETAILS SHAPE BASED CLASSIFICATION OF SEISMIC BUILDING STRUCTURAL TYPES Authors Sulzer et al. Physical risk Topic Year 2018 Publications Download This paper investigates automatic prediction of seismic building structural types described by the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) taxonomy, by combining remote sensing, cadastral and inspection data in a supervised machine learning approach. Our focus lies on the extraction of detailed geometric information from a point cloud gained by aerial laser scanning. To describe the geometric shape of a building we apply Shape-DNA, a spectral shape descriptor based on the eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. In a first experiment on synthetically generated building stock we succeed in predicting the roof type of different buildings with accuracies above 80 %, only relying on the Shape-DNA. The roof type of a building thereby serves as an example of a relevant feature for predicting GEM attributes, which cannot easily be identified and described by using traditional methods for shape analysis of buildings. Further research is necessary in order to explore the usability of Shape-DNA on real building data. In a second experiment we use real-world data of buildings located in the Groningen region in the Netherlands. Here we can automatically predict six GEM attributes, such as the type of lateral load resisting system, with accuracies above 75 % only by taking a buildings footprint area and year of construction into account. Abstract/Summary

  • Global Exposure Database-Scientific Features

    Publications SHORT INTRO The aim of this report is to provide a comprehensive documentation of the GED4GEM project and its results, the Global Exposure Database (or GED). Although most (if not all) of the information provided in this document is available in the d ... ALL DETAILS Global Exposure Database-Scientific Features Authors P. Gamba Physical Risk Topic Year 2014 Publications Download The aim of this report is to provide a comprehensive documentation of the GED4GEM project and its results, the Global Exposure Database (or GED). Although most (if not all) of the information provided in this document is available in the deliverables of the GED4GEM project (http://www.nexus.globalquakemodel.org/ged4gem/posts/ged4gem-deliverables/), this document offers a unique possibility to look at the various scientific aspects of the project. It also attempts to provide clear answers to the main questions that might be posed by potential users of the GED, specifically about the data sets used, the methodologies employed and the completeness of the database. Abstract/Summary

  • Report on the workshop for the participatory evaluation of earthquake risk and resilience in Quito, Ecuador

    Publications SHORT INTRO The South America Risk Assessment (SARA) project promotes the evaluation of earthquake risk from an integrated perspective. This integrated perspective not only accounts for the estimation of human and economic losses from damaging earthquake events, it includ ... ALL DETAILS Report on the workshop for the participatory evaluation of earthquake risk and resilience in Quito, Ecuador Authors Valcrcel, J.A., Burton, C.B., Villacis, C. Physical Risk Topic Year 2015 Publications Download The South America Risk Assessment (SARA) project promotes the evaluation of earthquake risk from an integrated perspective. This integrated perspective not only accounts for the estimation of human and economic losses from damaging earthquake events, it includes measuring characteristics within communities that affect the distribution of impacts and a community’s ability to recover. This integrated perspective is accomplished, in part, through the development of indicators and indices of social vulnerability (characteristics within social systems that create the potential for loss) and the combination of these with estimates of physical risk (i.e. human or economic losses). Indicators and indices are increasingly being recognized as useful tools for policy development in the area of natural hazards risk because they can summarize complex and multidimensional realities. Their use, however, for earthquake risk reduction policies may invite overly simplistic results. This especially applies to circumstances where characteristics of populations at risk are highly multidimensional and place specific, making them difficult to measure. Abstract/Summary

  • METEOR Exposure Datasets (v.2020) | Global EarthQuake Model Foundation

    GEM License Types – GNU Affero General Public License, used mostly for software AGPL – Creative Commons, By-Attribution CC BY – Creative Commons, By-Attribution, Share-Alike CC BY-SA – Creative Commons, By Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share-Alike CC BY-NC-SA – Non-Disclosure Agreement (By request for public-good, non-commercial use.) NDA – If a product is not available under a license that suits your needs, such as for commercial application, please contact us to discuss your use case and other partnership/licensing options and fees. Other/Commercial More details on GEM’s licensing terms . here Products METEOR Exposure Datasets (v.2020) Product type Dataset Now DESCRIPTION This data was developed as part of the Modelling Exposure Through Earth Observation Routines (METEOR) project and is a Level 1, or a global-quality exposure data set. Minimal country-specific data was collected. The data is intended for CAT modeling and loss estimation. APPLICATION Product category Dataset Contact ​ License type ​ Maintained by ​ Component ​ Documentation Hazard Risk Contributors Manual Download Hazard Download Risk Contact GEM Download Download Exposure Download Vulnerability Exposure This data was developed as part of the Modelling Exposure Through Earth Observation Routines (METEOR) project and is a Level 1, or a global-quality exposure data set. Minimal country-specific data was collected. The data is intended for CAT modeling and loss estimation. Maintained by ImageCat Inc. and METEOR Project Consortium Product type Dataset Availability Now Product restrictions This data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. See the following link for details: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ Licence type CC BY-NC-SA Send us a request Documentation View Please visit . https://meteor-project.org/docs

  • Critical Issues on Probabilistic Earthquake Loss Assessment. Journal of Earthquake Engineering

    Publications SHORT INTRO Probabilistic loss modeling can be used to develop risk reduction measures, such as the identification of regions more prone to human and economic losses, or to develop financial mechanisms to transfer the earthquake risk from local governments to the private ... ALL DETAILS Critical Issues on Probabilistic Earthquake Loss Assessment. Journal of Earthquake Engineering Authors Silva V Physical risk Topic Year 2017 Publications Download Probabilistic loss modeling can be used to develop risk reduction measures, such as the identification of regions more prone to human and economic losses, or to develop financial mechanisms to transfer the earthquake risk from local governments to the private sector. This study addresses several critical issues in probabilistic loss modeling, and provides recommendations depending on the intended final use of the risk results. Modeling issues related to convergence in probabilistic event-based analysis; consideration of epistemic uncertainties within a logic tree; generation of different types of loss exceedance curves; and derivation of risk maps are thoroughly investigated. The Metropolitan Area of Lisbon is used to explore these issues, and it is demonstrated that different assumptions in the loss modeling process can lead to considerably different risk results. Furthermore, the findings and recommendations of this study are also relevant for institutions that promote the assessment of earthquake hazard and risk, such as the Global Earthquake Model Foundation. Abstract/Summary

  • Prospective evaluation of global earthquake forecast models: Two years of observations support merging smoothed seismicity with geodetic strain rates. Seismological Research Letters

    Publications SHORT INTRO The global earthquake activity rate (GEAR1) seismicity model uses an optimized combination of geodetic strain rates, hypotheses about converting strain rates to seismicity rates from plate tectonics, and earthquake-catalog data to estimate global Mw = 5:767 sh ... ALL DETAILS Prospective evaluation of global earthquake forecast models: Two years of observations support merging smoothed seismicity with geodetic strain rates. Seismological Research Letters Authors Strader A, Werner M, Bayona J, Maechling P, Silva F, Liukis M, Schorlemmer D Hazard Topic Year 2018 Publications Download The global earthquake activity rate (GEAR1) seismicity model uses an optimized combination of geodetic strain rates, hypotheses about converting strain rates to seismicity rates from plate tectonics, and earthquake-catalog data to estimate global Mw = 5:767 shallow (= 70 km) seismicity rates. It comprises two parent models: a strain rate-based model and a smoothedseismicity based model. The GEAR1 model was retrospectively evaluated and calibrated using earthquake data from 2005 to 2012, resulting in a preferred log-linear multiplicative combination of the parent forecasts. Since 1 October 2015, the GEAR1 model has undergone prospective evaluation within the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) testing center, forecasting Mw = 5:95 seismicity. We present initial prospective forecast test results for the GEAR1 model, its tectonic and seismicity components, and for the first iteration of the strain-rate-based model, during the 1 October 2015-7 September 2017 period. During the evaluation period, observed earthquakes are consistent with the GEAR1 forecast and comparative test results likewise support that GEAR1 is more informative than either of its components alone. Based on a combination of retrospective and prospective testing, the tectonic forecasts do not effectively anticipate observed spatial earthquake distribution, largely due to overlocalization of the model with respect to observed earthquake distributions. Abstract/Summary

  • Guidelines for Empirical Vulnerability Assessment

    Publications SHORT INTRO These Guidelines provide state-of-the-art guidance on the construction of vulnerability relationships from post-earthquake survey data. The Guidelines build on and extend procedures for empirical fragility and vulnerability curve construction found in the lite ... ALL DETAILS Guidelines for Empirical Vulnerability Assessment Authors Rossetto, T., I. Ioannou, D.N. Grant and T. Maqsood Physical Risk Topic Year 2014 Publications Download These Guidelines provide state-of-the-art guidance on the construction of vulnerability relationships from post-earthquake survey data. The Guidelines build on and extend procedures for empirical fragility and vulnerability curve construction found in the literature, and present a flexible framework for the construction of these relationships that allows for a number of curve-fitting methods and ground motion intensity measure types (IMTs) to be adopted. The philosophy behind the design of the framework is that the characteristics of the data should determine the most appropriate statistical model and intensity measure type used to represent them. Hence, several combinations of these must be trialled in the determination of an optimum fragility or vulnerability curve, where the optimum curve is defined by the statistical model that provides the best fit to the data as determined by a number of goodness-of-fit tests. The Guidelines are essentially a roadmap for the process, providing recommendations and help in deciding which statistical model to attempt, and promote trialling of models and IMTs. Abstract/Summary

  • OpenQuake Underlying Risk Science

    Publications SHORT INTRO This book aims to provide an explanation of the scientific basis and the methodologies adopted in the implementation of the OpenQuake engine, an open source code for seismic hazard and physical risk calculation. The book follows the traditional openness and tr ... ALL DETAILS OpenQuake Underlying Risk Science Authors Helen Crowley, Vitor Silva Physical Risk Topic Year 2013 Publications Download This book aims to provide an explanation of the scientific basis and the methodologies adopted in the implementation of the OpenQuake engine, an open source code for seismic hazard and physical risk calculation. The book follows the traditional openness and transparency features of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) as clearly indicated in the development principles of the OpenQuake engine. The GEM initiative is a global collaborative effort with the aim to provide organisations and people with tools and resources for transparent assessment of earthquake risk anywhere in the world. The OpenQuake engine is a fully integrated, flexible and scalable hazard and physical risk calculation engine whose development is at the core of GEM’s overall objectives. Abstract/Summary

  • Seismic Risk Assessment in Nepal

    Publications SHORT INTRO Seismic risk in the form of impending disaster has been seen from past records that moderate to large earthquakes have caused the loss of life and property in all parts of Nepal. Despite the availability of new data, and methodological improvements, the availa ... ALL DETAILS Seismic Risk Assessment in Nepal Authors Chaulagain, H., Rodrigues, H., Silva, V., Spacone, E., Varum, H. Physical risk Topic Year 2015 Publications Download Seismic risk in the form of impending disaster has been seen from past records that moderate to large earthquakes have caused the loss of life and property in all parts of Nepal. Despite the availability of new data, and methodological improvements, the available seismic hazard map of Nepal is about two decades old. So an updated seismic hazard model at the country level is imperative and logical. The seismic hazard and risk model constitute important tools for framing public policies towards land-use planning, building regulations, insurance, and emergency preparedness. In fact, the reliable estimation of seismic hazard and risk eventually minimizes social and economic disruption caused by earthquakes. In this frame of reference, the seismic risk assessment at a country level is elementary in reducing potential losses stemming from future earthquakes. Thus, this study investigates structural vulnerability, seismic risk, and the resulting possible economic losses owing to future earthquakes in Nepal. To this end, seismic risk assessment in Nepal is done using an existing probabilistic seismic hazard, a newly developed structural vulnerability, and recently released exposure data. The OpenQuake-engine, the open source platform for seismic hazard and risk assessment from the Global Earthquake Model initiative, was used to calculate the seismic hazard and risk in Nepal. The seismic hazard and mean economic loss map were formulated for the 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Finally, the distribution of building damage and corresponding economic losses due to the recurrence of the historical 1934 earthquake was presented in this study. Abstract/Summary

  • Updated Seismic Hazard Assessment of Tunisia

    Publications SHORT INTRO Modern earthquake loss models make use of earthquake catalogs relevant to the seismic hazard assessment upon seismicity and seismotectonic analysis. The main objective of this paper is to investigate a recently compiled catalog (National Institute of Meteorolo ... ALL DETAILS Updated Seismic Hazard Assessment of Tunisia Authors Ksentini and Romshane Physical risk Topic Year 2013 Publications Download Modern earthquake loss models make use of earthquake catalogs relevant to the seismic hazard assessment upon seismicity and seismotectonic analysis. The main objective of this paper is to investigate a recently compiled catalog (National Institute of Meteorology or INM catalog: 412-2011) and to generate seismic hazard maps through classical probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and smoothed-gridded seismicity models for Tunisia. It is now established with the local earthquake bulletin that the recent seismicity of Tunisia is sparse and moderate. Therefore, efforts must be undertaken to elaborate a robust hazard analysis for risk assessment and seismic design purposes. These recommendations follow the recently published reports by the World Bank that describe the seismic risk in Tunis City as being beyond a tolerable level with an MSK intensity level of VII. Some attempts were made during the past two decades to assess the seismic hazard for Tunisia and they have mostly failed to properly investigate the historical and instrumental seismicity catalog. This limitation also exists for the key aspect of epistemic and random uncertainties impact on the final seismic hazard assessment. This study also investigates new ground motion prediction equations suitable for use in Tunisia. The methodology applied herein uses, for the first time in PSHA of Tunisia, seismicity parameters integrated in logic tree framework to capture epistemic uncertainties through three different seismic source models. It also makes use of the recently released version of OpenQuake engine; an open-source tool for seismic hazard and risk assessment developed in the framework of the Global Earthquake Model. Abstract/Summary

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