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PUBLICATIONS

Papers, articles and reports are released as part of GEM's advancing science & knowledge-sharing initiatives. Selected reports and other materials produced by the international consortia on global projects, working groups and regional collaborations can also be found below.

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Development of a global seismic risk model

GEM Strategic Plan and Roadmap to 2030

Improving Post-Disaster Damage Data Collection to Inform Decision-Making Final Report

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Year
Type
Topic
Global building exposure model for earthquake risk assessment
2023
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Development of a global seismic risk model
2020
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
GEM Strategic Plan and Roadmap to 2030
2022
Brochure
GEM
New Statistical Perspectives on Bath's Law and Aftershock Productivity
2022
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
A hybrid ML-physical modelling approach for efficient approximation of tsunami waves at the coast for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment
2022
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Exploring benefit cost analysis to support earthquake risk mitigation in Central America
2022
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
The adolescent years of seismic risk assessment
2022
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Exposure forecasting for seismic risk estimation: Application to Costa Rica
2021
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Investment in Disaster Risk Management in Europe Makes Economic Sense
2021
Report
Physical Risk
HAZARD INFORMATION PROFILES Supplement to : UNDRR-ISC Hazard Definition & Classification Review - Technical Report
2021
Report
Physical Risk
Regional based exposure models to account for local building typologies
2021
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Significant Seismic Risk Potential From Buried Faults Beneath Almaty City, Kazakhstan, Revealed From High-Resolution Satellite DEMs
2021
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Seismic vulnerability modelling of building portfolios using artificial neural networks
2021
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Development of a fragility and vulnerability model for global seismic risk analyses
2020
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
A Building Classification System for Multi-hazard Risk Assessment
2022
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Development of a uniform exposure model for the African continent for use in disaster risk assessment
2022
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Seismic loss dynamics in three Asian megacities using a macro-level approach based on socioeconomic exposure indicators
2022
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Guía para profesores para el desarrollo de un curso introductorio de riesgo sísmico
2022
User manual
Physical Risk
Material didáctico para sensibilizar a la comunidad sobre el riesgo sísmico. Aplicación para el Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá (AMVA)
2022
Report
Physical Risk
Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) Training Manual
2021
User manual
Hazard
Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico para Santiago de los Caballeros
2022
Report
Physical Risk
Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico para Santiago de Cali
2022
Report
Physical Risk
Evaluación de Riesgo Sísmico para el Distrito Metropolitano de Quito
2022
Report
Physical Risk
Earthquake-induced liquefaction and landslides in Cali, Colombia
2022
Report
Physical Risk
Scenario selection for representative earthquakes in Quito, Cali and Santiago de los Caballeros
2022
Report
Hazard
Executive summary Urban seismic risk assessment for the cities of Quito, Cali and Santiago de los Caballeros
2022
Report
Physical Risk
Tipologías constructivas en Quito, Cali and Santiago de los Caballeros
2021
Report
Physical Risk
Seismic hazard analysis at the urban scale
2021
Report
Hazard
Seismic Hazard Results (rock and soil conditions)
2021
Report
Hazard
Modelo Probabilístico de Amenaza Sísmica para la República Dominicana
2022
Report
Hazard
Probabilistic seismic hazard model for the Dominican Republic
2022
Report
Hazard
PSHA Models and Datasets for Urban Hazard Assesment
2022
Report
Hazard
Executive Summary
2022
Report
GEM
TREQ Executive Summary
2022
Report
GEM
Modelo Probabilístico de Amenaza Sísmica para la República Dominicana
2022
Report
Hazard
Probabilistic seismic hazard model for the Dominican Republic
2022
Report
Hazard
Exposure forecasting for seismic risk estimation: Application to Costa Rica
2021
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Vulnerability modellers toolkit, an open‑source platform for vulnerability analysis
2021
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Global Exposure Database for Multi-Hazard Risk Analysis-Multi-hazard Exposure Taxonomy
2018
Report
Exposure
Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis model for the Philippines
2020
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Earthquake Models: Oct 2020 Release (brochure)
2020
Brochure
Integrated Risk
Africa Earthquake Model: brochure
2019
Brochure
Integrated Risk
The Development Impact of Risk Analytics
2020
Report
Integrated Risk
GEM's 2018 global hazard and risk models
2020
Peer-reviewed
GEM
Colombia Seismic Model
2020
Report
Hazard
Potential impact of earthquakes during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic
2020
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
The GEM Global Active Faults Database
2020
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
The 2018 version of the Global Earthquake Model: Hazard component
2020
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
European Seismic Risk Model 2020: Focus on Croatia
2020
Report
Physical Risk
The European Seismic Risk Model 2020 (ESRM 2020)
2019
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Resilience Performance Scorecard - (RPS) Methodology
2017
Report
Social Vulnerability
GAR - Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2019
2019
Report
Integrated Risk
Assessing Seismic Hazard and Risk Globally for an Earthquake Resilient World
2019
Peer-reviewed
Integrated Risk
Extensible Data Schemas for Multiple Hazards, Exposure and Vulnerability Data
2019
Peer-reviewed
Exposure
Improving Post-Disaster Damage Data Collection to Inform Decision-Making Final Report
2018
Report
Exposure
Report on the workshop for the participatory evaluation of earthquake risk and resilience in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2017
Report
Social Vulnerability
Combining USGS ShakeMaps and the OpenQuake-engine for damage and loss assessment
2019
Peer-reviewed
Exposure
Evaluation of Seismic Risk on UNESCO Cultural Heritage sites in Europe. International Journal of Architectural Heritage
2018
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Development of a Probabilistic Earthquake Loss Model for Iran, Bulleting of Earthquake Engineering
2017
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Exploring the impact of spatial correlations and uncertainties for portfolio analysis in probabilistic seismic loss estimation
2014
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
The Global Earthquake Model Physical Vulnerability Database
2016
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Earthquake Loss Estimation for the Kathmandu Valley
2016
Conference paper
Physical risk
Seismic Risk Assessment in Nepal
2015
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Critical Issues in Earthquake Scenario Loss Modeling, Journal of Earthquake Engineering
2016
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Critical Issues on Probabilistic Earthquake Loss Assessment. Journal of Earthquake Engineering
2017
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Assessing Integrated Earthquake Risk in OpenQuake with an Application to Mainland Portugal
Burton CG, Silva V. Assessing Integrated Earthquake Risk in OpenQuake with an Application to Mainland Portugal. Earthquake Spectra. 2016;32(3):1383-1403. doi:10.1193/120814EQS209M
2015
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Exploring the seismic risk of the unreinforced masonry building stock in Antioquia, Colombia. Natural Hazard
2017
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Development of a Fragility Model for the Residential Building Stock in South America, Earthquake Spectra
2016
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Modelling the Residential Building Inventory in South America for Seismic Risk Assessment, Earthquake Spectra
2017
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Assessing the impact of earthquake scenarios in transportation networks: the Portuguese mining factory case study. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering
Costa, C., Silva, V. & Bazzurro, P. Assessing the impact of earthquake scenarios in transportation networks: the Portuguese mining factory case study. Bull Earthquake Eng 16, 1137–1163 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-017-0243-2
2017
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Assessment of earthquake damage considering the characteristics of past events in South America. Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics
2017
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Earthquake loss assessment of precast RC industrial structures in Tuscany (Italy), Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering
2017
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Probabilistic Seismic Risk Assessment for Costa Rica. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, .
2018
Peer-reviewed
Physical risk
Global Geodetic strain rate model
2014
Report
Hazard
Global historical earthquake archive and catalogue (1000-1903)
2013
Report
Hazard
Guidelines for Analytical Vulnerability Assessment-Low/Mid-Rise
2014
User manual
Physical Risk
Guidelines for component-based analytical vulnerability assessment of buildings and nonstructural elements
2014
User manual
Physical Risk
Guidelines for Empirical Vulnerability Assessment
2014
User manual
Physical Risk
Integrated Risk Modelling Toolkit Manual
2018
User manual
Integrated Risk
Introduction to the GEM Earthquake Consequences Database (GEMECD)
2014
Report
Physical Risk
ISC-GEM Global instrumental earthquake catalogue (1900-2009)
2012
Report
Hazard
Likelihood- and residual-based evaluation of medium-term earthquake forecast models for California
2014
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
User guide Android mobile tool for field data collection
2014
User manual
Physical Risk
User guide Field sampling strategies for estimating building inventories
2014
User manual
Physical Risk
User guide Geospatial tools for building footprint and homogenous zone extraction from imagery
2014
User manual
Physical Risk
User guide Windows tool for field data collection and management
2014
User manual
Physical Risk
User Needs Assessment for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM)
2010
Report
GEM
A transparent and data-driven global tectonic regionalisation model for seismic hazard assessment. - Geophysical Journal International
Yen-Shin Chen, Graeme Weatherill, Marco Pagani, Fabrice Cotton, A transparent and data-driven global tectonic regionalization model for seismic hazard assessment, Geophysical Journal International, Volume 213, Issue 2, May 2018, Pages 1263–1280, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggy005
2018
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
A summary of hazard datasets and guidelines supported by the Global Earthquake Model during the first implementation phase
PAGANI, Marco et al. A summary of hazard datasets and guidelines supported by the Global Earthquake Model during the first implementation phase. Annals of Geophysics, [S.l.], v. 58, n. 1, apr. 2015. ISSN 2037-416X.
2015
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Appraising the PSHA earthquake source models of Japan, New Zealand, and Taiwan
Marco Pagani, Ken Xiansheng Hao, Hiroyuki Fujiwara, Matthew Gerstenberger, Kuo‐Fong Ma; Appraising the PSHA Earthquake Source Models of Japan, New Zealand, and Taiwan. Seismological Research Letters 2016;; 87 (6): 1240–1253. doi: https://doi.org/10.1785/0220160101
2016
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Assessing global earthquake risks: the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) initiative
H. Crowley, R. Pinho, M. Pagani, N. Keller, 30 - Assessing global earthquake risks: the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) initiative, Editor(s): S. Tesfamariam, K. Goda, In Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering, Handbook of Seismic Risk Analysis and Management of Civil Infrastructure Systems, Woodhead Publishing, 2013, Pages 815-838, ISBN 9780857092687, https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857098986.5.815.
2014
Book chapter
GEM
Assessing seismic hazard of the East African Rift: a pilot study from GEM and AfricaArray
Poggi, V., Durrheim, R., Tuluka, G.M. et al. Assessing seismic hazard of the East African Rift: a pilot study from GEM and AfricaArray. Bull Earthquake Eng 15, 4499–4529 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-017-0152-4
2017
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Back to Normal report
2017
Report
Integrated Risk
Beyond Button Pushing report
2017
Report
Physical Risk
Can we test for the maximum possible earthquake magnitude?
2014
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Celebrating achievements and way forward
2013
Brochure
GEM
Compilation and critical review of GMPEs for the GEM-PEER Global GMPEs Project
2012
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Data Interchange Formats for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM)
2010
Report
OpenQuake
Defining a consistent strategy to model ground-motion parameters for the GEM-PEER Global GMPEs Project
2012
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Development and Application of OpenQuake, an Open Source Software for Seismic Risk Assessment
2012
Peer-reviewed
OpenQuake
Development of the OpenQuake engine, the Global Earthquake Model's open-source software for seismic risk assessment
2013
Peer-reviewed
OpenQuake
Earthquake Model for the European-Mediterranean Region for the purpose of GEM1
2010
Report
Hazard
End-to-end demonstration of the inventory data capture tools (IDCT)
2014
User manual
Physical Risk
Exploring earthquake databases for the creation of magnitude-homogeneous catalogues: tools for application on a regional and global scale
2016
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Exposure Data Development for the Global Earthquake Model: Inventory Data Capture Tools (IDCT)
2012
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
GEM 2009/2010 report 2nd edition
2009
Report
GEM
GEM brochure
2013
Brochure
GEM
GEM building taxonomy version 2.0
2013
Report
Physical Risk
GEM IT Review 2010
2013
Report
OpenQuake
GEM-PEER Task 3 Project: Selection of a Global Set of Ground Motion Prediction Equations
2013
Report
Hazard
GEM: a Participatory Framework for Open, State-of-the-Art Models and Tools for Earthquake Risk Assessment
2012
Peer-reviewed
GEM
GEM: For a safer and earthquake resilient future (brochure)
2019
Brochure
GEM
GEM1 Best Practices for Using Macroseismic Intensity and Ground Motion Intensity Conversion Equations for Hazard and Loss Models in GEM1
2010
Report
Hazard
GEM1 Executive Summary
2010
Report
GEM
GEM1 Hazard: Description of Input Models, Calculation Engine and Main Results
2010
Report
Hazard
GEM1 report on the review of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) software as a basis for development of the OpenQuake Engine
2010
Report
Hazard
GEM1 Seismic Risk Report
2010
Report
OpenQuake
GEM1: OpenGEM System Design Document
2010
Report
OpenQuake
Global Earthquake Model: Community-Based Seismic Risk Assessment
2011
Book chapter
GEM
Global Exposure Database-Scientific Features
2014
Report
Physical Risk
Prospective evaluation of global earthquake forecast models: Two years of observations support merging smoothed seismicity with geodetic strain rates. Seismological Research Letters
2018
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Modeling distributed seismicity for probabilistic seismic_hazard analysis: Implementation and insights with the OpenQuake engine
2014
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
OpenQuake engine manual
2018
User manual
OpenQuake
OpenQuake engine installation guide
2018
User manual
OpenQuake
OpenQuake Engine: An Open Hazard (and Risk) Software for the Global Earthquake Model
2014
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
OpenQuake Ground Motion Toolkit - UserGuide
2014
User manual
Hazard
OpenQuake Hazard component testing procedures
2014
Report
Hazard
OpenQuake Hazard Modeller's Toolkit - UserGuide
2017
User manual
Hazard
OpenQuake Underlying Hazard Science
2014
Report
Hazard
OpenQuake Underlying Risk Science
2013
Report
Physical Risk
Participatory Evaluation of Earthquake Risk and Resilience in Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City
2014
Report
Social Vulnerability
Probabilisitic Seismic Hazard Analysis: Issues and Challenges from the GEM Perspective
2016
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Prospective and retrospective evaluation of five-year earthquake forecast models for California
2017
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Remote Sensing for Building Inventory Generation: GEM-Driven Global Solutions
2011
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Risk Modeler's toolkit
2015
User manual
Physical Risk
Seismic fragility and vulnerability assessment using simplified methods for the Global Earthquake Model
2013
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
Selection of a Global Set of GMPEs for the GEM-PEER Global GMPEs Project
2012
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Selection of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for GEM1*
2010
Report
Hazard
Site Effects in Parametric Ground Motion Models for the GEM-PEER Global GMPEs Project
2012
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
Sub-Saharan Africa Geodetic Strain Rate Model 1.0
2015
Report
Hazard
The GED4GEM Project: Development of a Global Exposure Database for the Global Earthquake Model Initiative
2012
Peer-reviewed
Physical Risk
The GEM Faulted Earth Project
2015
Report
Hazard
The hazard component of OpenQuake: The calculation engine of the Global Earthquake Model
2012
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
The Hazard Component of the GEM Modeller's Toolkit: A Framework for the Preparation and Analysis of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard (PSHA) Input Tools
2012
Peer-reviewed
Hazard
The OpenQuake Engine Brochure V1
2012
Brochure
OpenQuake
Understanding GEM's potential beneficiaries
2012
Report
GEM

Global building exposure model for earthquake risk assessment

Type:

Peer-reviewed

The global building exposure model is a mosaic of local and regional models with information regarding the residential, commercial, and industrial building stock at the smallest available administrative division of each country and includes details about the number of buildings, number of occupants, vulnerability characteristics, average built-up area, and average replacement cost. We aimed for a bottom-up approach at the global scale, using national statistics, socio-economic data, and local datasets. This model allows the identification of the most common types of construction worldwide, regions with large fractions of informal construction, and areas prone to earthquakes with a high concentration of population and building stock. The mosaic of exposure models presented herein can be used for the assessment of probabilistic seismic risk and earthquake scenarios. Information at the global, regional, and national levels is available through a public repository (https://github.com/gem/global_exposure_model), which will be used to maintain, update and improve the models.

Development of a global seismic risk model

Type:

Peer-reviewed

The Development of a Global Seismic Risk Model was a mammoth undertaking that involved hundreds of people and for the first time presented a detailed view of seismic risk at the global scale. For some developing countries, this was the first time that a seismic risk map was produced, and the associated country profiles are being used by the local authorities.

GEM Strategic Plan and Roadmap to 2030

Type:

Brochure

GEM was founded in 2009 with the purpose of improving the global knowledge of earthquake risk and contributing to the reduction of risk worldwide. In 13 years, GEM has become widely known for its global effort to improve the state of practice of earthquake hazard and risk assessment and for its contribution to improving the state of knowledge of earthquake risk.

New Statistical Perspectives on Bath's Law and Aftershock Productivity

Type:

Peer-reviewed

The well-established Bath’s law states that the average magnitude difference between a mainshock and its strongest aftershock is roughly 1.2, independently of the size of the mainshock. The main challenge in calculating this value is the bias introduced by missing data points when the strongest aftershock is below the observed cut off magnitude. Ignoring missing values leads to a systematic error, because the data points removed are those with particularly large magnitude differences ∆M. The error is minimized, if we restrict the statistics to mainshocks at least two magnitude units above the cut-off, but then the sample size is strongly reduced. This work provides an innovative approach for modelling ∆M by adapting methods for time-to-event data, which often suffers from incomplete observation (censoring). In doing so, we adequately account for unobserved values and estimate a fully parametric distribution of the magnitude differences ∆M for M ą 6 mainshocks. Results show that magnitude differences are best modeled by the Gompertz distribution, and that larger ∆M are expected at increasing depths and higher heat flows. A simulation experiment suggests that ∆M is mainly driven by the number and the magnitude distribution of aftershocks. Therefore, in a second study, we modelled the variation of aftershock productivity in a stochastically declustered local catalog for New Zealand, using a generalized additive model approach. Results confirm that aftershock counts can be better modelled by a Negative Binomial than a Poisson distribution. Interestingly, there is indication that triggered earthquakes trigger themselves two to three times more aftershocks than comparable

A hybrid ML-physical modelling approach for efficient approximation of tsunami waves at the coast for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment

Type:

Peer-reviewed

This work investigates a novel approach combining numerical modelling and machine learning, aimed at developing an efficient procedure that can be used for large scale tsunami hazard and risk studies. Probabilistic tsunami hazard and risk assessment are vital tools to understand the risk of tsunami and mitigate its impact, guiding the risk reduction and transfer activities. Such large-scale probabilistic tsunami hazard and risk assessment require many numerically intensive simulations of the possible tsunami events, involving the tsunami phases of generation, wave propagation and inundation on the coast, which are not always feasible without large computational resources like HPCs. In order to undertake such regional PTHA for a larger proportion of the coast, we need to develop concepts and algorithms for reducing the number of events simulated and more rapidly approximate the simulation results needed. This case study for a coastal region of Japan utilizes a limited number of tsunami simulations from submarine earthquakes along the subduction interface to generate a wave propagation database at different depths, and fits these simulation results to a machine learning model to predict the water depth or velocity of the tsunami wave at the coast. Such a hybrid ML-physical model can be further coupled with an inundation scheme to compute the probabilistic tsunami hazard and risk for the onshore region.

Exploring benefit cost analysis to support earthquake risk mitigation in Central America

Type:

Peer-reviewed

We performed benefit-cost analysis to identify optimum retrofitting interventions for the two most vulnerable building typologies in Central America, unreinforced masonry and adobe, considering the direct costs due to building damage and the indirect costs associated with the injured and fatalities. We reviewed worldwide retrofitting techniques, selected those that could be applied in the region for these building types, and derived vulnerability functions considering the impact of each retrofitting intervention in the strength, stiffness, and ductility of the structures. Probabilistic seismic risk analyses were performed considering the original configuration of each building class, as well as the retrofitted version. We calculated average annual losses to estimate the annual savings due to the different structural interventions, and benefit cost ratios were estimated based on the associated cost of each retrofitting technique. Based on the benefit-cost analyses, for a 50-year time horizon and a 4% discount rate, retrofitting these building classes could be economically viable along the western coast of Central America.

The adolescent years of seismic risk assessment

Type:

Peer-reviewed

Vitor Silva reflects on the current position of seismic risk assessment compared to its hazard counterpart, and posits that this discipline is expected to become common practice in disaster risk management, providing decision makers with valuable information not just about the current threat, but also how the impact of future disasters is expected to evolve. The growth of seismic risk assessment into its adult years will allow a more efficient design and implementation of risk mitigation measures. ultimately contributing to its main and only goal: the reduction of the human and economic losses caused by earthquakes.

Exposure forecasting for seismic risk estimation: Application to Costa Rica

Type:

Peer-reviewed

This study proposes a framework to forecast the spatial distribution of population and residential buildings for the assessment of future disaster risk. The approach accounts for the number, location, and characteristics of future assets considering sources of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in several time-dependent variables. The value of the methodology is demonstrated at the urban scale using an earthquake scenario for the Great Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica. Hundreds of trajectories representing future urban growth were generated using geographically weighted regression and multiple-agent systems. These were converted into exposure models featuring the spatial correlation of urban expansion and the densification of the built environment. The forecasted earthquake losses indicate a mean increase in the absolute human and economic losses by 2030. However, the trajectory of relative risk is reducing, suggesting that the long-term enforcement of seismic regulations and urban planning are effectively lowering seismic risk in the case of Costa Rica.

Investment in Disaster Risk Management in Europe Makes Economic Sense

Type:

Report

The physical, financial, and social impacts of disasters in Europe are growing and will continue to grow unless urgent actions are taken. In the European Union (EU), during the period from 1980 to 2020, natural disasters affected nearly 50 million people and caused on average an economic loss of roughly €12 billion per year (EEA, 2020). The impacts of flood, wildfire, and extreme heat are increasing rapidly, and climate damages could reach €170 billion per year according to conservative estimates for a 3 scenario unless urgent action is taken now (Szewczyk, et al., 2020). Earthquakes, while rare, have a devastating impact on the ageing buildings and infrastructure of Europe that were constructed prior to modern codes; in Bucharest, for example, nearly 90% of the population lives in multifamily buildings with pre-modern building codes3 (Simpson & Markhvida, 2020). Within the EU, the top-five countries with the highest annual average loss to earthquake are Cyprus, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, and Croatia, and for floods the top-five countries are Romania, Slovenia, Latvia, Bulgaria, and Austria.4 However, disasters do not affect everyone equally: poor, elderly, very young, and marginalized populations are most affected and least able to recover. In Romania, Greece, Croatia, and Bulgaria, for example, the socio-economic resilience of the poor is on average less than 30% of the national average (World Bank, 2020). Moreover, the local and regional administrations in the poorer and more disadvantaged areas have the least capacity to design and implement resilience investments.

HAZARD INFORMATION PROFILES Supplement to : UNDRR-ISC Hazard Definition & Classification Review - Technical Report

Type:

Report

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 (‘the Sendai Framework’) was one of three landmark agreements adopted by the United Nations in 2015. The other two being the Sustainable Development Goals of Agenda 2030 and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. The UNDRR/ISC Sendai Hazard Definition and Classification Review Technical Report supports all three by providing a common set of hazard definitions for monitoring and reviewing implementation which calls for “a data revolution, rigorous accountability mechanisms and renewed global partnerships”.
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