GMPEs

How is it of relevance?

Based on past records of strong ground motion, peak ground acceleration and other intensity measures can be described by ground motion prediction equations.

The goal of the GEM GMPE project, is the selection of a number of default equations for different tectonic regions of the globe from the hundreds of available equations. 

Who selected the GMPEs

The Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), worked in collaboration with 26 international scientists with extensive GMPE expertise from various parts of the world. See below a list of all collaborators.

Which GMPEs have been selected?

Subduction zones (SZs):

  • AB03 - Atkinson & Boore (2003)
  • AEA12 (submitted) - Abrahamson et al. (2012) *also known as BC-Hydro*
  • ZEA06 - Zhao et al. (2006)

Active crustal regions (ACRs):

  • AB10 - Akkar & Bommer (2010)
  • CY08 - Chiou & Youngs (2008)
  • ZEA06 - Zhao et al. (2006)

Stable continental regions (SCRs):

  • AB06 - Atkinson & Boore (2006)
  • PEA11 - Pezeshk et al. (2011)
  • SEA02 - Silva et al. (2002)
  • TEA97 - Toro et al. (1997)

Component subsitutions

Sigma: EPRI06 for SEA02 - Electric Power Research Institute (2006)

These equations are not meant to replace those proposed in regional programmes (such as EMME in the Middle East and SHARE in Europe), since these are more specific to the area.

How are these equations different?

GMPE development is an area of active research, new GMPE’s are developed frequently, because of new databases, new simulations and our common expanding knowledge. The value of this project therefore is not only in selecting a specific (default) set of GMPEs applicable worldwide, but especially in the process that we followed to select the GMPEs. That process is described in a number of reports that will soon become available.

The selection process in brief

STEP 1: PRE-SELECTION

The following criteria (Cotton et al., 2006) were applied to all (200) models listed in Douglas (2011):

  1. the model is from a clearly irrelevant tectonic regime;

  2. the model is not published in an international peer-reviewed journal;

  3. the documentation of model and its underlying dataset is insufficient;

  4. the model has been superseded by more recent publications;

  5. the frequency range of the model is not appropriate for engineering application;

  6. the model has an inappropriate functional form; and

  7. the regression method or regression coefficients are judged to be inappropriate.

  • Criteria 1 means GMPEs only selected for their proposed regime [uncertainty in regionalisation handled by the Tectonic Regionalisation Working Group]
  • Criteria 2 was occasionally relaxed, particularly for SCRs
  • Criteria 4 removes the majority of pre-2000 models
  • Criteria 5 removes all PGA-only models + GMPEs only for 0.05<T<2s
  • Criteria 6 and 7 remove most local models, non-parametric models and those not derived using maximum-likelihood/random-effects techniques

STEP 2: FINAL SELECTION

A core working group & expert review panel was assembled. The principal materials used for selection were:

  • Trellis plots to illustrate GMPE performance (spectra, M-scaling, R-scaling, site-scaling, sigma)
  • Review of functional forms
  • GMPE – data comparisons from literature

Teleconferences (working group) and a workshop in Istanbul (with all project participants) helped to finalise the selection.

Trellis plot to illustrate GMPE performance; SPECTRA

Trellis plot to illustrate GMPE performance; SPECTRA

Trellis plot to illustrate GMPE performance; M-SCALING

Trellis plot to illustrate GMPE performance; M-SCALING

Trellis plot to illustrate GMPE performance; DISTANCE-CALING

Trellis plot to illustrate GMPE performance; DISTANCE-CALING

Trellis plot to illustrate GMPE performance; Vs30-SCALING

Trellis plot to illustrate GMPE performance; Vs30-SCALING

Trellis plot to illustrate GMPE performance; SITE NONLINEARITY

Trellis plot to illustrate GMPE performance; SITE NONLINEARITY

Trellis plot to illustrate GMPE performance; STANDARD DEVIATION

Trellis plot to illustrate GMPE performance; STANDARD DEVIATION

How can I use the outputs of the project?

Seven detailed technical reports will be published online this spring. Each report covers one of the tasks that were carried out in the project:

1a: Definition of a consistent strategy of modeling ground motion; consistency in model parameters,
1b: Definition of a consistent strategy of modeling ground motion; consistency in site parameters.
2: Compilation and critical review of GMPEs
3: Selection or derivation of a global set of GMPEs.
4: Inclusion of near-fault effects
5: Database of Recorded Waveform
6:
Specifications for compilation of a global database of Soil Classification.

PEER will also publish a number of overview reports. 

How can I contribute?

  • Please leave us your comments on the publications
  • We are always interested in receiving feedback from organisations and indidvuals that have applied the GMPEs
  • If you have other ideas or questions, feel free to get in touch as well

Contact us through PEER: htremayne@berkeley.edu

All collaborators

NAME

AFFILIATION

REGION

Abrahamson, Norm

Pacific Gas & Electric Co

North America, Worldwide

Akkar, Sinan

Middle East Technical University

Turkey

Arefiev, Sergei

Russian Academy of Sciences

Russia

Baker, Jack

Stanford University

North America, Worldwide

Boroschek, Ruben

University of Chile

South America

Boore, David

USGS

North America, Worldwide

Bozorgnia, Yousef

PEER, Berkeley University 

North America, Worldwide

Campbell, Ken

EQECAT

North America, Worldwide

Cheng, Thomas

SinoTech

Taiwan

Chiou, Brian

California Department of Transportation 

Worldwide, Taiwan

Cotton, Fabrice

Université Joseph Fourier

Europe

Delavaud, Elise

ETH Zurich

Europe, Worldwide

Di Alessandro, Carola

PEER, University of California

Europe, Worldwide

Dong, Wang

Institute of Engineering Mechanics (IEM) / CEA

China

Douglas, John

BRGM

Europe, Worldwide

Erdik, Mustafa 

KOERI

Middle East

Fajfar, Peter  

University of Ljubljana

Europe, Worldwide

McVerry, Graeme

GNS Science

New Zealand

Midorikawa, Saburoh 

Tokyo Institute of Technology

Japan

Midzi, Vunganai

Council for Geoscience South Africa 

South Africa / sub-Saharan Africa

Molas, Gilbert

Risk Management Solutions (RMS)

USA, Latin America

Saragoni, Rodolfo

University of Chile

Latin America

Shoja-Taheri 

Jafar Ferdowsi University / University of Nevada 

Middle East

Silva, Walter

Pacific Engineering and Analysis

North America, Worldwide

Somerville, Paul

URS Corporation / Macquarie University Australia

Worldwide

Peter Stafford

Imperial College Worldwide

Stewart, Jonathan

University of California

Italy, Worldwide